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Universität Heidelberg (2005)

Environmental tracers in groundwater as tools to study hydrological questions in arid regions

El-Gamal, Hany

Titre : Environmental tracers in groundwater as tools to study hydrological questions in arid regions

Auteur : El-Gamal, Hany

Université de soutenance : Universität Heidelberg, Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie

Grade : Doktorgrade 2005

Résumé
Environmental tracers such as noble gases, stable isotopes, tritium, and SF6 are used in this work to study hydrological questions in arid regions. Theoretical models and numerical methods to treat the excess air phenomenon in groundwater are discussed. The potential of these approaches to describe the phenomenon of degassing, which is found in some aquifers, is explored. This work contains two major applications of environmental tracers to study groundwater in areas with very arid climate. The main goal of these studies was to determine the origin and age of groundwater in such locations. The first study investigates aquifers supplying water to new reclamation areas southwest of the Nile Delta in Egypt. In this area, the groundwater is mainly recharged from the Nile River, albeit at a low rate. Most of the samples were recharged before the completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1969 and have ages > 50 yr, only few wells located near to the surface water yield younger water. The second study investigates springs supplying oases in the mountains of Northern Oman. These springs are recharged by precipitation on time scales of years to at most a few decades. Most of the samples have young ages ranging between 2-10 yr.

Mots clés : Trockengebiet ; Grundwasser ; Altersbestimmung ; Indikatormethode ; Herkunft ; Grundwasserleiter ; Luft ; Entgasung ; Indikatormethode

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Page publiée le 12 mars 2006, mise à jour le 5 janvier 2019