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Université Constantine 1 (ex Mentouri) 2008

Diversité et activité pollinisatrice des abeilles (Hymenoptera : Apoidea) sur les plantes cultivées

BENACHOUR Karima

Titre : Diversité et activité pollinisatrice des abeilles (Hymenoptera : Apoidea) sur les plantes cultivées

Auteur : BENACHOUR Karima

Université de soutenance : Université Constantine 1 (ex Mentouri)

Grade : Doctorat 2008

Résumé
In order to determine the social and solitary pollinating Apoid (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) and their pollination efficiency, a study was conducted on 9 market garden plants in the region of Constantine (36° 20’ N 06° 35’ E, 660m i n a l t i t ude ) over a period extending from 2000 to 2004. Observations were made during the flowering of each plant which allowed the identification of the pollinating Apoidea of these plants. Wild bee Eucera numida L. and the honey bee Apis mellifera (Apidae) are the main pollinators of the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) (Fabaceae). Eucera numida is the most prolific pollinator, and has a higher pollinating efficiency than the honey bee. This species, in addition, exhibits a higher faithfulness to the plant. The second leguminous plant, Pisum sativum L., is very rarely visited by bees, and only Eucera numida paid some visits to these flowers. The honey bee is the main pollinator of the squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) (Cucurbitaceae). It is also one of the main pollinators of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), together with Ceratina cucurbitina (Apidae), Megachile leachella, and M. pilidens (Megachilidae). With a shorter time spent of the female flowers, the honey bee is the most efficient pollinator of this plant. On the two Brassicaceae, the turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and the radish (Raphanus sativus L.), we found respectively the honey bee and C. cucurbitina as main pollinators. Their foraging on the flowers may be fertilizing in 100% of the visits. On the beet (Beta vulgaris L.), it is a halictid, Lasioglossum mediterraneum, who is the most frequent visitor with 66% of the observed visits. Finally, on the two Solonaceae, the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), no visit by any bee was observed on the flowers. The comparison of the yield in the presence of pollinators (free plots) and in their absence (caged plots) showed that cross-pollination improves significantly the yield of the plants. Only the yield of the radish showed small improvement in the presence of pollinating insects. The multiple linear regression-study of the influence of three climactic factors (temperature, relative humidity, and luminosity) on the activity of the bees showed that temperature and luminosityare the factors regulating their activity.

Mots clés : Rendement Abeilles domestiques Abeilles sauvages Plantes maraichères, Pollinisation Comportement de butinage Facteurs climatiques

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Page publiée le 20 mai 2014, mise à jour le 12 avril 2018