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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Allemagne → 2001 → Das Grundwasser am Nord-Westrand der Kalahari, Namibia,Langzeitarchivierung gewährleistet

Universität Würzburg Allemagne (2001)

Das Grundwasser am Nord-Westrand der Kalahari, Namibia,Langzeitarchivierung gewährleistet

Külls, Christoph

Titre : Das Grundwasser am Nord-Westrand der Kalahari, Namibia,Langzeitarchivierung gewährleistet

Groundwater of the North-Western Kalahari, Namibia : estimation of recharge and quantification of the flow systems

Auteur : Külls, Christoph

Université de soutenance : Universität Würzburg , Fakultät für Geowissenschaften

Grade : Doktorgrade 2001

Résumé
A quantitative model of groundwater flows contributing to the Goblenz state water scheme at the north-western fringe of the Kalahari was developed within this study. The investigated area corresponds to the Upper Omatako basin and encompasses an outer mountainous rim and sediments of the Kalahari sand desert in the centre. This study revealed the eminent importance of the mountainous rim for the water balance of the Kalahari, both in terms of surface and ground water. A hydrochemical subdivision of groundwater types in the mountain rim around the Kalahari was derived from cluster analysis of hydrochemical groundwater data. The western and south-western secondary aquifers within rocks of the Damara Sequence, the Otavi Mountain karst aquifers of the Tsumeb and Abenab subgroups as well as the Waterberg Etjo sandstone aquifer represent the major hydrochemical groups. Ca/Mg and Sr/Ca ratios allowed to trace the groundwater flow from the Otavi Mountains towards the Kalahari near Goblenz. The Otavi Mountains and the Waterberg were identified as the main recharge areas showing almost no or only little isotopic enrichment by evaporation. Soil water balance modelling confirmed that direct groundwater recharge in hard-rock environments tends to be much higher than in areas covered with thick Kalahari sediments. According to the water balance model average recharge rates in hard-rock exposures with only thin sand cover are between 0.1 and 2.5 % of mean annual rainfall. Within the Kalahari itself very limited recharge was predicted (< 1 % of mean annual rainfall). In the Upper Omatako basin the highest recharge probability was found in February in the late rainfall season. The water balance model also indicated that surface runoff is produced sporadically, triggering indirect recharge events. Several sinkholes were discovered in the Otavi Foreland to the north of Goblenz forming short-cuts to the groundwater table and preferential recharge zones. Their relevance for the generation of indirect recharge could be demonstrated by stable isotope variations resulting from observed flood events. Within the Kalahari basin several troughs were identified in the pre-Kalahari surface by GIS-based analyses. A map of saturated thickness of Kalahari sediments revealed that these major troughs are partly saturated with groundwater. The main trough, extending from south-west to north-east, is probably connected to the Goblenz state water scheme and represents a major zone of groundwater confluence, receiving groundwater inflows from several recharge areas in the Upper Omatako basin. As a result of the dominance of mountain front recharge the groundwater of the Kalahari carries an isotopic composition of recharge at higher altitudes. The respective percentages of inflow into the Kalahari from different source areas were determined by a mixing-cell approach. According to the mixing model Goblenz receives most of its inflow (70 to 80 %) from a shallow Kalahari aquifer in the Otavi Foreland which is connected to the Otavi Mountains. Another 15 to 10 % of groundwater inflow to the Kalahari at Goblenz derive from the Etjo sandstone aquifer to the south and from inflow of a mixed component. In conclusion, groundwater abstraction at Goblenz will be affected by measures that heavily influence groundwater inflow from the Otavi Mountains, the Waterberg, and the fractured aquifer north of the Waterberg

Mots clés : Kalahari ; Grundwasserbildung ; Hydrogeologie ; Namibia

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Page publiée le 12 mars 2006, mise à jour le 5 janvier 2019