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Wageningen Universiteit (2005)

Agroforestry parkland species diversity : uses and management in semi-arid West-Africa (Burkina Faso)

Nikiema, Albert

Titre : Agroforestry parkland species diversity : uses and management in semi-arid West-Africa (Burkina Faso)

Auteur : Nikiema, Albert

Université de soutenance  : Wageningen Universiteit

Grade : Doctor Thesis 2005

Résumé
Agroforestry parkland in semi-arid West Africa is a rural land use system, which allows farmers to grow annual crops in combination with useful trees. In addition to cereals, tree products such as vegetables, fruits, vegetable oil, firewood, fodder, and medicines are obtained from the parklands. However the multiple function of the parkland system can only be fulfilled if parkland species diversity is adequately managed. This thesis is focused on assessing the woody species diversity in the parklands, the important uses and threats linked to these species and the opportunities that rural and urban markets offer to justify farmers’ investment in better agroforestry parkland diversity management. Results on woody species composition showed that the parkland system in south-central Burkina, in the Sudanian eco-zone, has fewer species than the protected forest, while the opposite figure is observed in the Sahelian eco-zone of north-central Burkina. Common dominant species recorded in the parklands are Vitellaria paradoxa, Balanites aegyptiaca, Sclerocarya birrea, Bombax costatum, Lannea microcarpa, Sterculia setigera, and Parkia biglobosa. The physiognomy of the parklands is at present quite alarming because of lack of regeneration, which is explained by the shortening or suppression of the fallow period. This change in the land use system over time is likely to persist along with a growing population pressure on agricultural land, and therefore requires urgent attention. . Conservation and management of the parklands therefore needs a new approach which can turn some of the threats into sustainable management opportunities. The investigation on livestock parkland interaction showed that some species are preferred fodder for cows and or sheep and goats. It is therefore proposed that quality fodder species are planted in the parklands. Non Wood Forest Products (NWFFs) are sold in local and urban markets and the result of the survey conducted in Zoundweogo local markets and urban markets in Ouagadougou suggest that management of parklands should integrate the promotion of income generating species at farmer’ s level as well as at rural landscape level. Bush fire as a management tool used in the rural areas was studied to identify the suitable period for the fires to be lighted and identify the vulnerable species, which need special attention. As an example it is finally proposed in a synthesis table, how each species should be evaluated for subsequent management actions in the parklands.

Mots clés : WOODY PLANTS / AGROFORESTRY / SPECIES DIVERSITY / BIODIVERSITY / TREES / CROPS / MANAGEMENT / CONTROLLED BURNING / LAND USE / BURKINA FASO / WEST AFRICA

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