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Wageningen Universiteit Pays Bas (2000)

Crop residue management in relation to sustainable land use : a case study in Burkina Faso

Savadogo, M.

Titre : Crop residue management in relation to sustainable land use : a case study in Burkina Faso

Auteur : Savadogo, M. 

Université de soutenance : Wageningen Universiteit

Grade : Doctor Thesis 2000

Résumé partiel
Traditional agricultural production systems in Sub-Saharan Africa were based on transfer of nutrients by grazing animals from rangeland to cropland, combined with fallowing. These systems are under increasing pressure as a result of rapid population increase. In most of the semi-arid and sub-humid zones, the area of rangeland, required to maintain cropland productivity, is not available anymore. The associated continuous decline in soil productivity induces risks of food shortage and irreversible soil degradation, and every effort should be made to avoid further deterioration of the resource base. Integration of crops and livestock and the associated intensified nutrient cycling are often advocated as desirable developments towards sustainable land use. Performance of these integrated systems hinges on the management of crop residues and manure, which represent the main source of organic matter and nutrients for animal and soil. The objective of the present study was to analyse the consequences of alternative management techniques of crop residues, from a sustainable crop-livestock farming perspective in the North Soudanian zone of Burkina Faso. The specific objectives were : (1) To establish response curves describing the effect of (varying degrees of) selective consumption of crop residues (as single feeds and in various combinations) on animal production ; (2) to evaluate the effect of alternative systems of feeding crop residues on labour requirements and household income ; (3) to evaluate the effect of alternative systems of feeding residues on crop production and on organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus balances at farm level ; (4) to determine the trade-offs among various objectives associated with alternative crop residue management techniques. The potential contribution of crop residues to ruminant feeding in the four agro-ecological zones distinguished in Burkina Faso was estimated, applying the Java Program developed at the Animal Production Systems Group of Wageningen University (Chapter 2). The number of animals that can be fed and their production were estimated on the basis of availability and quality (digestibility and N content) of crop residues (cereal stovers and legume haulms). Feeding trials were carried out with sheep to determine the relationships between the quantities of crop residues offered on the one hand, and intake and digestibility of ingested material on the other hand. In Chapter 3, the effect of selective consumption on intake and digestibility of sorghum, cowpea and groundnut residues is described. Two additional feeding trials were conducted as a basis for optimising the use of cowpea and groundnut haulms as supplement to sorghum stover (Chapter 4). The models used for analysis of the data allow description of the combined effects of animal selectivity for the better fractions of cereal stover, and of supplementation, on intake and digestibility of ingested material. Results of the feeding trials complemented by literature data served as the basis to derive iso-production curves. Based on the isoquant concept, least-cost rations were derived for a range of combinations of cereal stovers and supplements.

Mots clés : ANIMAL PRODUCTION / SUSTAINABILITY / ANIMAL NUTRITION / CROP RESIDUES / BURKINA FASO

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