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Chang’an University (2012)

Study on the Rural Drinking Water Safety Guarantee System and Engineering Measures in Arid and Semi-arid Area

伏苓; Fu Zuo

Titre : Study on the Rural Drinking Water Safety Guarantee System and Engineering Measures in Arid and Semi-arid Area

Auteur : 伏苓; Fu Zuo

Grade : Doctoral Dissertation 2012

Université : Chang’an University

Résumé partiel
Water is the basic element for human survival and development, and drinking watersafety has been the focus of the world people’s attention. In China’s arid and semi-arid regions,however, due to the drought, water shortage, ecological fragility,lag of the water supplymeasures,the problem of drinking water safety has been seriously endanger the health of thepeople, and the harmonious development of the local socio-economic. In order to solve theproblem, and make the drinking water safe in rural areas, the research on the theory,engineering and management measures is an urgent need, and the theory should be systematicand scientific, engineering technology mature and efficient, management measures sound andeffective, This dissertation studies on the rural drinking water safety guarantee system of thearid and semi-arid area, from the aspects of overall planning, water sources and water sourceregions determination, intake measures, treatment process, pipe network optimization andconstruction management, to establish the rural drinking water safety rational guaranteesystem. The main contents include:(1)Based on the study of rural drinking water supply situation and the existing problemsin arid and semi-arid area, China, the connotation of this area’s rural drinking water safetysystem is extended to an integrated system, which contains adequate water quantity, safewater quality, high supply guarantee rate of water sources and facilities, easy to take,affordable prices and so on. The evaluation index system and the evaluation criteria of therural drinking water safety in arid and semi-arid area are analyzed, and the index systemcontains water quality, water quantity, water pressure, convenience, guaranteed rate and waterprice. On the basis of the connotation and requirements of rural drinking water safety in aridand semi-arid area, the rural drinking water safety framework, which covers engineeringtechnology and management maintenance, is built.(2) In the arid and semi-arid area, water sources are scarce and unevenly distributed, andresidential water consumption is obvious different along with the time, according to theprinciple of multi-water sources jointed dispatch, centralized and decentralized water supplymode combination, according to the time and demand, three water supply modes is proposed:zone water supply, dual water supply and timing water supply, and each water supply mode isdiscussed in detail. The calculation method of the water supply scale under different watersource conditions and water demands are also provided.(3) According to a variety of types of drinking water sources in the arid and semi-aridarea, water sources optimal principle and a variety of water quantity, water quality evaluation calculation method are proposed. The determination of water source regions are made fromvarious demonstrate factor : for instance, the factors of quality, river terrain, engineeringgeology and construction condition are for surface water and the factors of hydrological,geological conditions, water ecological environment and construction cost are for groundwater, and soil infiltration, runoff and so on are for rain water.(4) Groundwater as the main source of rural drinking water in the arid and semi-arid area,certain type of intake structures could be selected according to the characteristics of the watersource. When the groundwater buries deeper, with thicker aquifer or many layers of it, deepwell or open well can be used for supplying water. When the groundwater buried shallowerand aquifer is thinner, undertow-interception works can be applied. In the Northwest LoessPlateau region, the radial well and seepage well integrate characteristics of the vertical andhorizontal groundwater intake structures, achieve the nice interception and storage effect. Inaddition, in the areas of water extremely scarce, rainwater cellars can be used to collectingrainwater, which is an effective means of gathering drinking water. A detailed study is carriedon the process principle, characteristics, scope of application, engineering structures, anddesign calculations of the every water intake structure involved in the above.(5) According to the characteristic of rural drinking water projects in the arid andsemi-arid area, water processing system is divided into the raw water treatment and householdwater storage facilities water treatment.

Mots clés : arid and semi-arid area; rural drinking water safety; water supply mode; project scale; water sources and water source regions determination; intake works; drinkingwater processing system; water pipe system safe planning; drinking water projectmanagement;

Présentation (CNKI)

Page publiée le 11 septembre 2014, mise à jour le 11 janvier 2018