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Lanzhou University (2012)

The Study on the Ecological Compensation Mechanism of the Contaminated Arid Oasis Farmland

汪霞;Wang Xia

Titre : The Study on the Ecological Compensation Mechanism of the Contaminated Arid Oasis Farmland

Auteur : 汪霞;Wang Xia

Grade : Doctoral Dissertation 2012

Université : Lanzhou University

Résumé
Heavy metal contamination in farmland has been paid great attention all over the world, which could accumulate in soil and crops and threat human health. The farmer is the victim of soil pollution ; they are also the executor and the participator during the reparation of contaminated soil. Rational ecological compensation mechanism could protect the benefit of the farmers and promote the enthusiasm of the farmer to participate the project of contaminated soil remediation.Ecological compensation mechanism about pollution soil is a main part of environment pollution controlling policy. The paper analyzed the law and the regulation of soil pollution managements about farmland, investigated the spatial distribution of heavy metals in arid oasis farmland, and shared the experiments about how to manage the pollution farmland in developed countries. On the basis of these studies and integrate the WTA questionnaire investigate、the healthy risk assessment of heavy metal pollution and the investigation of farmer participate way to protect the soil, the paper structured a ecological compensation mechanism in order to provide the scientific basis to formulate the regulation and law about the soil pollution management. The mains results about the study were as follows :(1) Heavy metals such as Zn、Ni、Pb and Cd contamination was mainly accumulated in suburb vegetable lands in arid oasis areas. Cd has the most accumulation in Baiyin suburb, Ni and Pb occupy the dominate elements in soil contamination in Jinchang suburb. There are lots of implement departments to charge the repairing of soil pollution and the responsibility of each department is not clearly, which restrict to carry out the recovering work and degraded the activity of farmers to participate the work about recovering the contamination soil. The decision makers and the executor of the study areas believed that they has no laws to follow is the main problem during the management of the soil pollution, the second problem is the lack of specific fund to repair the contaminated soil.(2) The contingent valuation method (CVM) is used to analyze the farmers’ willingness to accept (WTA) the compensation for recovering the heavy metal contaminated soil in arid oasis areas, using Baiyin and Jinchang suburb farmland as a case study. Based on the result of statistical analysis of382questionnaires, it was showed that91.79%farmers in this area have recognized the impact of soil contamination.41.62%respondents were against to abandon the contaminated cropland because of less life safeguard, so reasonable compensation standard in ecological restoration project is an important issue. Econometrics model Analysis indicated the farmers’willingness to accept (WTA) are between746.45-862.73Yuan (RMB)/hm2. The acute WTA data has a positive relationship with the family population, education and the areas of the cropland. The farmers’gender, age and their income have little affection on WTA. The results showed that the farmers’WTA were based on the income of crops planting which was840Yuan (RMB)/hm2pre year in this areas.(3) Ecological compensation needs to depends on the degree of the farmer’s loss caused by the contamination soil. By this way the farmer’s benefit can be protected. Through divided the grade of ecological compensation centigrade, the ecological compensation fund can be used for the most needed people and can save the limited funds. Healthy risk assessment is a scientific and useful method to divide the degree of heavy metal contamination in arid oasis farmland, which based on the investigation about the amount of intake vegetables and the basic information about the regional people.The degree deviation of heavy metal contamination in arid oasis farmland based on healthy risk assessment can be followed by this standard:a. When the health risk index of the people intake vegetables under different levels of contamination soil (R) was below1, the vegetables for eaten by people will not effect by the contamination soil, the farmland need no ecological compensation. b. When R is between1to7, the people who take the vegetables will expose to chronic diseases, the ecological compensation should be continued carried out for one to two years depend on the different calculation with different plants. c. When R is between7to10, heavy metal contamination will produce middle risk on people’ health, the ecological compensation should be carried out for three to five years. d. When R is higher than10, heavy metal contamination will produce high risk on people’health, the ecological compensation should be carried out for five to eight years. e. When R is higher than30, the areas is not suitable for people to live, the government should immigrate the farmer to safety place. (4) Public participation is an important way for recovering the contamination farmland in arid oasis, it is also a main method to carry out the ecological compensation project. The results show that74.3%farmer believed that the contamination soil should be recovered immediately,53.2%farmer thought the responsibility of recovering work is on the government, it indicate that the soil contamination recovering work is a public action guided by the government. There are no technical means has been introduced to the farmers on how to protect and avoided the contamination of soil. The willingness to pay (WTP) for recovering the contamination soil is between82.2-71.4yuan (a/f), the index of WTP is far more higher than it in other farmland areas, it is showed that the farmer in arid oasis areas has higher activity to participate the recovering work on contamination soil. We suggested taking following measures to support local people to participate the ecological compensation project:a. Public ate the information about the heavy metal contamination soil ; b. Ensure the farmer’right to know, the right to participate and to participate the recovering work all of the process ; c. Strengthen the technical means introducing ; d. Utilize the farmers willingness to pay for remediate the contamination soil in order to widen the resource of ecological compensation fund

Mots clés : ecological compensation mechanism; arid oasis; contamination;

Présentation (CNKI)

Page publiée le 12 septembre 2014, mise à jour le 11 janvier 2018