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Yangzhou University (2010)

Effects of nitrogen fertilization on wheat , tomato yield and quality , and dryland soil nitrogen leaching in

Li Chang Gui

Titre : Effects of nitrogen fertilization on wheat , tomato yield and quality , and dryland soil nitrogen leaching in

Auteur : Li Chang Gui

Grade : Master’s Theses 2010

Université : Yangzhou University

Résumé
With the use of agricultural resources and agro-ecological environmental protection have become increasingly prominent contradiction, the facilities reduction efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer is an urgent need to address the major issues in the world. China’s per capita arable land resources are scarce, the use of high strength of the soil and fertilizer inputs are supporting one of the most important factors of agricultural production, the cost of nitrogen fertilizer is one of the biggest costs in agricultural production, and not in a long time changed. With rising every year, the amount of chemical fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer excessive investment in negative impact on the environment can not be ignored. Therefore, the study of the principles and techniques of Sustainable Yield reduce nitrogen fertilizer inputs, increase nitrogen utilization pathway has important significance. The same time, the study of soil nitrogen leaching leakage losses, excessive nitrogen fertilization effects on agricultural environment conducive to further explore its control approach. The test by setting different nitrogen fertilizer to study the influence of nitrogen fertilization on yield and quality of both open field of wheat and tomato in greenhouse crops, the negative effects of excessive nitrogen fertilization on the growth of wheat, tomato and environmental. And studied by simulating the nitrogen in dryland soil leaching leakage test, in order to provide a basis to further explore the behavior of too much nitrogen fertilizer in farmland and control approach. In this study, obtained the following main results : (1) With the improvement of nitrogen levels, wheat yield trend showed a rising trend. When nitrogen rate exceeds a certain value, the wheat output declined. The nitrogen rate 184kg/hm 2, wheat production reached for maximum 8.75t/hm to. (2) With the amount of nitrogen increases, wheat grain protein content trend showed an increasing trend in nitrogen rate 242kg/hm 2, protein content reached a maximum value of 16.64%, followed by increasing levels of nitrogen, grain The protein content gradually decreased with the increase of the amount of nitrogen. (3) With the increase in the wheat growing season nitrogen fertilizer, agronomic N use efficiency decreased gradually. Appropriate to reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizer, wheat production can reduce the cost of inputs, and improve economic efficiency. (4) greenhouse tomato fruit yield as nitrogen levels increase gradually increasing regularity, but in nitrogen rate over 113kg/hm 2, With the increasing levels of nitrogen application, tomato fruit production is declining. (5) With the increase in the amount of nitrogen fertilizer, the economic benefits of the greenhouse tomato has a first rose and then dropped in the process. The best theoretical income falls between the nitrogen rate 112kg/hm2 to 140kg/hm2. (6) straw for NO3 - N and NH4-N release in both upland soil (of Facilities soil and Catcher soil). (7) The application of slow-release fertilizer and urea have a different impact on the loss of soil nitrogen : slow release fertilizers release nitrogen is more gentle. Urea easy in a relatively short period of time centralized large-scale release is not conducive to the timely crop absorption does not conform to the law of demand characteristics of the crop growth. (8) migration process with ammonium nitrate in the soil nitrogen migration process easier than ammonium nitrogen, nitrate leaching, which is more obvious in the garden soil.

Mots clés : Wheat Tomato Yield Quality Soil leaching

Présentation (Dissertation topics)

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