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Northwest University of Science and Technology (2004)

Study of the Mechanically Protecting Tillage System for Wheat in Weibei Dryland Region

Fu ZengGuang

Titre : Study of the Mechanically Protecting Tillage System for Wheat in Weibei Dryland Region

Auteur : Fu Zeng Guang

Grade : Master’s Theses 2004

Université : Northwest University of Science and Technology

Résumé
Winter wheat is an important grain crop in Weibei dryland region, and its yield and quality play a significant role in food safety and sustainable development of the region, even Shaanxi province. However, because of draught, the region practices one cropping of wheat per annum, mostly with summer fallowing. The lands in summer fallow are mostly tilled with traditional plowing techniques and thus form naked soil surface and loose topsoil structure. The nakedness and loose structure do not only cause severe soil erosion and water loss but also intensify inefficient evaporation of soil water in hot and rainy summer, which, in addition to poor soil fertility, resulted in a low and unstable yield of winter wheat in the region.Although the stubble (straw) mulching technique, the deep tillage technique and the plastic film mulching technique currently practiced in wheat production all have the capacities to retain soil moisture and increase winter wheat yield to different extents, the capacities are limited to a large extent because all these techniques are individually adopted. In order to realize the whole capacities of each technique and make rainfall be retained and infiltrate into soil in situ, ‘high stubble retention ’, ‘deep and loose cultivation’ and plastic film mulching are properly integrated into the mechanically protecting tillage system for wheat whose major components are stubble retention, plastic film mulching, deep and loose cultivation and furrow planting next to plastic film’. On the basis of previous research results and with wheat planted without mulching under traditional plowing as the control, the mechanically protecting tillage system for wheat was further compared with the technique of the stubble mulching under no-tillage during whole growth of wheat and the stubble mulching under deep and loose cultivation during the whole growth of winter wheat in 2003-2004. The results of the research showed : 1. Compared with traditional plowing techniques, various protecting tillage techniques had the capacities to retain and conserve water. The capacities ranked from high to low as follows : the mechanically protecting tillage system, the technique of the stubble mulching with deep and loose tillage during whole growth of summer wheat and the technique of stubble retaining without tillage during whole growth of summer wheat.2. The model of furrow planting next to film under deep and loose cultivation made use of the effects of both deep cultivation and stubble mulching on soil moisture to retain and conserve the rainfall in summer fallow in soil, which accounted for more than 50 % annual rainfall during whole growth of winter wheat. The amount of soil water retained and conserved under the model was 85.1mm more than that under traditional plowing models, and thus the ratio of retained and conserved water to the rainfall falling onto the soil under the former reached 55.0%, 17,6% higher than that under the latter ; in addition to increasing soil temperature, the technique of furrow planting with mulched ridges taken at the sowing time of winter wheat could keep not only as much water accumulated in soil during summer fallow as possible but also as much rainfall during the growth period of winter wheat as possible so that ‘water-conserving effects of topsoil under deep and loose cultivation’, the water-conserving and fertility-improving effects of stubble mulching’ and the water-retaining, water-conserving, temperature-increasing and sunlight-penetrating effects of furrow planting with mulched ridges combined into an integrative whole, which significantly improved the environmental conditions of wheat fields concerned with water, fertility, aeration and warmth

Mots clés : Weibei dryland plateau dryland wheat mechanization protecting tillage

Présentation (Dissertation topics)

Page publiée le 27 septembre 2014, mise à jour le 21 septembre 2017