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Northwest University of Science and Technology (2003)

Study on the Management Patterns of Water and Fertilizer in Red Fuji Apple Orchard in Dryland

Zhang Li Xin

Titre : Study on the Management Patterns of Water and Fertilizer in Red Fuji Apple Orchard in Dryland

Auteur : Zhang Li Xin

Grade : Master’s Theses 2003

University : Northwest University of Science and Technology

Résumé
The achievements in the studies and exsited problems of the manaegement patterns of water and fertilizer in Red Fuji apple orchard in dryland were analysed. It pointed out that the menace of water and fertilizer , especialy water and potassium , is main restricted factor of high and steady yield and high quality of the apple in dryland. By the field test and chemical analysis of foliar samples , the comprehensive analysis of different water management patterns, different fertilize management patterns, interaction between water and potassium and quality responses and DRIS diagnoses norms and fertilization models were carried out. It provided theory basises for the choice of different water and fertilizer management patterns and application of the diagnosis with DRIS norm of mineral elements.1. Water management pattern in Fuji apple orchard in dryland was studied. The results showed the best water management pattern was wheat straw mulching under low annual precipitation and grass planting under high annual precipitation. The comprehensive analysis were carried out on effects of different water management pattern on yield of Fuji apple, soil water conservation and soil organic matter of Fuji apple orchard , growth in various stages and fruit quality of Fuji apple under different annual precipitation .On this base, a new water management pattern of orchard on dryland, “wheat straw mulching on the region of apple roots +grass planting between apple tree rows ”, was put forward.2.It showed that potassium application could increase the apple yield under different fertilizer (K) management patterns. The yield responses of Fuji apple to the five treatments were in order of KCl+CaSO4 >K2SO4 >2KCl > SUF >KCl。Potassium slao could both reduce the length of new branches and increase the weight of 100 leaves , the content of chlorophll. The results showed potassium application could improve photosynthesis of leaves. The relationship between vegetative growth and reproductive growth was coordinated by potassium application. The best potassium management pattern was KCl+CaSO4. As for apple quality, potassium application could both increase total red surface fruit , single fruit weight and the soluble solids content, vitamin C, the hardness of fruit. Therefore, KCl+CaSO4 treatment was the best on base of N and P fertilizer application in dryland.3.Interaction between water and potassium , quality responses and coupled model of Fuji apple on rainfed highland were studied. According to the results of experiment, the yield , ratio of the first grade fruit , ratio of >80% of red surface fruit and soluble solids density function model were set up. Based on the main factors analysis of the function model , the yield responses of Fuji apple to the three factors were in order of water > K2SO4>KCl , ratio of the first grade fruit responses in order of water > K2SO4>KCl , ratio of >80% of red surface fruit responses in order of K2SO4>KCl> water and soluble solids density responses in order of K2SO4>KCl> water. The comprehensive analysis of laws of interaction betweens water and potassium and fruit quality responses of Fuji apple on Weibei rained highland was carried out.4.The different patterns of Calcium fertilizer application in Fuji apple Weibei rainfed highland were studied. According to the results of experiment, spraying Calcium fertilizer can efficienttiy increase the yield and quality of Fuji apple. ,but have no effects on the content of toxin of the fruit. The increase rate of Ca(NO3)2 and CaCl2 was 12.2%-22.4% and 17.6%.The patterns of Ca(NO3)2(or CaCl2) +NAA was better than Ca(NO3)2 or CaCl2,which increase rate was 61.7%-71.2% . The comprehensive analysis of the hardness, the soluble sugar content ,single fruit weight, the rate of fruit with dease and pest of Fuji apple on Weibei rained highland was carried out.5.The foliar samples were respectively collected from 60 Fuji apple orchards , which were classified as the high yield group(≥22500kg.hm-2) and low yield group(<22500kg.hm-2). N、P、K

Mots clés : apple orchard dryland water management patterns Fertilizer management patterns

Présentation (Dissertation topics)

Page publiée le 5 octobre 2014, mise à jour le 21 septembre 2017