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Universidade Federal do Ceará (2003)

Methodological proposal for one program of alternative micron-reservoirs of water in the Brasilian semi-arid sertões, associate to the rescue of fossil

Ximenes, Celso Lira

Titre : Methodological proposal for one program of alternative micron-reservoirs of water in the Brasilian semi-arid sertões, associate to the rescue of fossil.

Proposta metodológica para um programa de micro-reservatórios alternativos de água nos sertões semi-áridos brasileiros, associado ao resgate de fósseis.

Auteur : Ximenes, Celso Lira Ximenes

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal do Ceara

Grade : Mestrado 2003

The affected areas by the phenomenon of desertification all over the world constitute one of the great environmental problems at the present time, whose larger consequence is the deterioration of the quality of life of the resident populations inside of their limits. The man’s survival not only in those desert regions, but also in arid and semi-arid ones, in a general way, is one of the humanity’s great challenges. In Brazil, the semi-arid and its problems concentrate on the Northeast Area, where it is most of the called Droughts Polygon. Many programs and alternative actions have been accomplished in the last hundred years to diminish the negative effects caused by the rain shortage in that area, but until now they were not enough to establish a definite picture of conviviality of the population in the semi-arid with quality of life. In this context all and any action, no matter how simple it is, has been motivated by the Organization of the United Nations. The key word that has been representing those alternatives is conviviality. Taking this into consideration this work presents a methodological proposal whose main objective is the use of the so called natural tanks, quite common in the Brazilian Northeast, rich in fossils of mega-mammals of the quaternary age, as alternative micro-reservoirs of water, by means of programs of paleontology rescue of its fossil content. The implantation of new sources of water in semi-arid areas, mainly for human consumption, by itself, justifies the development of the idea. As a methodology approach was selected a pilot region in the Center-North Part of the State of Ceará, in the called Nucleus of Desertification of Irauçuba. Such area forms a rectangle, North-South bound, with 20 km of width and 44 km of length, totaling a surface of 880 km2. The reason of the choice of that area is justified for the fact of the existence, as a coincidence, of a great number of natural tanks and paleontology sites in an area that suffers the effects of the desertification. Inside of the area, two sub-areas were selected for sampling, denominated Pilot Area Itapipoca and Pilot Area Irauçuba. In those pilots areas 7 groups of tanks were examined, considering the use aspects as source of water and as paleontology sites, totaling 37 units. As a way of demonstration of results each group was examined individually, being defined a pattern of measure of the capacity of accumulation of water in the tanks, denominated of minimum volume. In the Pilot Area Itapipoca, 4 groups of tanks were analyzed, with 31 units, revealing a total minimum volume of 5,450,110 liters, for the benefit of about 67 families (approximately 400 people), for a period of up to 10 months. In the Pilot Area Irauçuba 3 groups of tanks were analyzed, with 6 units in the total, presenting a total minimum volume of 362,020 liters, for the benefit of about 20 families (approximately 120 people), for medium periods of 3 months. Regarding the paleontology patrimony, a fossil’s rescue was accomplished in the Pilot Area Itapipoca, totaling more than 1,000 collected pieces. The main conclusion of this work is the proof of the strategic importance of the micro-reservoirs compared with the low cost of its implantation. Parallel the plan of Scientific Rescue of the Fossils is presented, as a way of resolving the problem of this patrimony depredation, being still demonstrated the economical potential of the fossils for paleontology tourism, as an economical option for the municipal districts that possess that natural resource. The great merit of this proposal, finally, is its applicability in the whole Brazilian semi-arid area, due to occurrence of the natural tanks in several States of the Northeast.


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