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Boise State University (2004)

Nesting Ecology and Breeding Success of Cinereous Vultures (Aegypius Monachus) in Central Mongolia

Batbayar Nyambayar

Titre : Nesting Ecology and Breeding Success of Cinereous Vultures (Aegypius Monachus) in Central Mongolia

Auteur : Batbayar Nyambayar

Université de soutenance : Boise State University

Grade : Master of Science in Raptor Biology 2004

Résumé partiel
There are a total of 22 species of vultures in the world. They belong to two quite unrelated groups, the Accipitridae and Cathartidae families. The 15 species of Old World vultures that belong to Accipitridae group are closely related to the eagles and buzzards in the Falconiformes, but the 7 species of New World vultures that belong to Cathartidae group vultures are descended from the ancient storks (Houston 1983, Mundy et al. 1992). All vultures are primarily scavengers, inhabiting a variety of interesting ecological relationships around the world, but in many cases little studied and threatened by changes occurring in their environment. I studied the cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) in central Mongolia in 2002 and 2003. This Palearctic species is also known as the Eurasian black vulture, and it is the largest Old world raptor. Mass of males is 7,000-11,500 g (n=20) and females 7,500-12,500 g (n=21) (Brown and Amadon 1968). The species was formally listed as Globally Threatened in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (Collar et al. 1994, Collar and Andrew 1988), and today its category has been changed to Near Threatened (BirdLife International 2000). Until the last two centuries, cinereous vultures had a considerably larger population than today, which ranged from Western Europe and North Africa, through Europe, Middle East, and Northeast China (Brown and Amadon 1968, Gensbol 1984, Fargallo et al. 1998). At present, the cinereous vultures breed only in three places in Europe : mainland and Mallorca Island in Spain, and Greece (Houston 1982, Vlachos et al.1999, Heredia 1996, Erdogdu et al. 2003). The rest of the birds nest from Turkey and Crimea eastwards in across Central Asia into Mongolia. The cinereous vultures are generally regarded as chiefly resident (Brown and Amadon 1968), but some young, and probably some adult birds migrate and reach to India, China, Taiwan, Nepal, Japan and Korea for "winter" (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Fomin and Bold 1991, Inskipp and Inskipp 1991, Sibley and Monroe 1990, Brazil and Hanawa 1991, Gore and Pyong-Oh 1971, Forsman 1999, Satheesan 2000, Shagdarsuren 1983, Hansoo Lee and Paek Won Lee pers. comm., N. Batbayar and M. Fuller unpublished data). The cinereous vulture has significantly decreased in numbers throughout its breeding range, most notably in Europe, and disappeared from many countries. The greatest decline occurred from the second half of the last century to the 1980s (Heredia 1996, Fargallo et al. 1998). There is a paucity of information about its distribution and abundance in most of its range. It seems that currently the range of this species has been segmented into two parts in the Old World. The first is the Western, or the Southern European breeding population of cinereous vulture, and it consists of approximately 2000 pairs (Vlachos et al. 1999, Tewes et al. 2003). In Europe the major causes of the decline were pesticides, poisoning, illegal killing, and removal of their food supply due to changes in farming methods, and the habitat alteration in the breeding areas related to forestry operations, which facilitated access to formerly inaccessible areas and caused disturbance to the breeding pairs (Houston 1982, Heredia 1996). At present, this species has been regarded as one of the Europe’s most threatened raptors and requires intensive management and conservation efforts (Wilbur 1983, Heredia 1996).

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Page publiée le 3 février 2015, mise à jour le 10 novembre 2018