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Universidad de Murcia (2013)

Estrategias para la recuperación de suelos degradados en ambientes semiáridos : adición de dosis elevadas de residuos orgánicos de origen urbano y su implicación en la fijación de carbono

García Lucas, Encarnación

Titre : Estrategias para la recuperación de suelos degradados en ambientes semiáridos : adición de dosis elevadas de residuos orgánicos de origen urbano y su implicación en la fijación de carbono

Auteur : García Lucas, Encarnación

Université de soutenance : Universidad de Murcia.

Grade : Tesis Doctoral 2013

Résumé
The increase in the generation of waste, especially organic waste, is a problem that demands an immediate solution. Furthermore, the high level of degradation in large areas of Spain and southeastern Europe resulting from years of aggressive human activity and adverse weather conditions (semi-arid) is another equally significant problem. The low level of organic matter in these soils is the key factor in their degradation. The fact that in extensive areas in Spain and in other European countries, particularly in southern Europe, the traditional sources of organic matter (peat and manure) are scarce raises an interesting question : can both problems, degradation and the generation of organic waste, be treated together ? In an attempt to respond to this question, the idea in this study is to use the organic matter contained in organic waste as a source of soil organic matter, particularly the organic matter contained in municipal organic waste (sewage sludge and organic waste from households), as this is inexpensive and in ready supply. The goal is to improve the quality and fertility of the soil and simultaneously eliminate organic waste in a rational and environmentally friendly manner. At the same time, this strategy promotes carbon sequestration by increasing the stable carbon reserves in the soil, helping to mitigate the negative effects of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. To reach these objectives, we studied the effects of applying both the organic fraction of household waste without composting and compost obtained from a mixture of sewage sludge from municipal wastewater and the organic fraction of household waste at two different doses : one dose that can be considered "normal-average" for soil recovery (150 t/ha), equivalent to 1% of Corg, and another dose that can be considered "high-very high" (450 t/ha), equivalent to 3% of Corg, both in the field experiment and at the microcosm level under controlled conditions. In both cases, degraded soil from southeastern Spain was used. The methodology used involved developing the three experiments carried out monitoring of the plots. Various physical, chemical, physico-chemical, microbiological and biochemical parameters were tracked both in amended and control soils, in addition to specific parameters which are indicators of soil microbial communities. FAME profiles and Biolog analyses were tracked as well. The composition and structure of humic acids (HA) were also studied in-depth (using C13 nuclear magnetic resonance (CPMAS-13C-NMR) together with Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy), as were the composition and structure of immobilized enzymes in these acids found in amended and unamended semi-arid soils. In conclusion to this study, it can be said that degraded semi-arid soils are capable of supporting large quantities of municipal organic waste without causing harm to soil microbial growth and activity or risk to the environment, provided that the municipal organic waste is of sufficient quality. These amendments can improve soil quality, resulting in improvements in the physical, chemical, microbiological and biochemical conditions of the soil, providing humic substances capable of immobilizing enzymes, contributing to the revival and improvement of the processes of soil life and contributing to an increase in the stable C pool in the soil

Mots Clés : suelos residuos orgánicos

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Page publiée le 28 novembre 2014, mise à jour le 30 janvier 2019