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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Espagne → 2013 → Emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero y protección del carbono orgánico del suelo en secanos Mediterráneos : efectos del laboreo y de la estrategia de fertilización

Universitat de Lleida (2013)

Emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero y protección del carbono orgánico del suelo en secanos Mediterráneos : efectos del laboreo y de la estrategia de fertilización

Plaza Bonilla, Daniel

Titre : Emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero y protección del carbono orgánico del suelo en secanos Mediterráneos : efectos del laboreo y de la estrategia de fertilización

Auteur : Plaza Bonilla, Daniel

Université de soutenance : Universitat de Lleida

Grade : Tesis Doctoral 2013

Résumé
The main objective of this study was the quantification of the effects of different types of soil tillage and types and rates of nitrogen fertilization on the emission of soil greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2 and N2O) to the atmosphere and the soil aggregation as an organic carbon protection mechanism in the dryland semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystems. In order to achieve that objective five experimental fields were established comparing different tillage systems (notillage and intensive tillage) and types (mineral and organic) and rates of nitrogen fertilizers, localized in the center and East of the Ebro Valley. In Agramunt (Lleida, established in 1996) and Senés de Alcubierre (Huesca, established in 2010) CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions were quantified during two and three years, respectively. Soil organic C and N stocks, crop yield and the emission of CO2 equivalents per kg of grain produced were also determined. Moreover, in Agramunt, water-stable macroaggregates, microaggregates within macroaggregates and their C concentration and other different soil fractions were quantified. In turn, in another experiment in Agramunt a no-tillage chronosequence with 0, 1, 4, 11, 20 years was established and the water-stable and dry-sieved aggregates distributions and their C concentration were determined. In St. Martí Sesgueioles (Barcelona, established in 2007) increasing rates of mineral fertilizer under no-tillage were compared. In Conill (Barcelona, established in 2008) the application of pig slurry at two N rates, poultry manure and a control treatment under a no-tillage management were studied. In both experiments the soil aggregation dynamics, the C protection within aggregates and their C concentration and the microbial biomass carbon were analyzed during two cropping seasons. Finally, an incubation of macroaggregates was carried out in order to study the impact of the type of tillage and fertilizer (mineral and organic with pig slurry) on the production of CH4, CO2 and N2O. In general, tillage systems and nitrogen fertilizer management affected the emissions of soil greenhouse gases to the atmosphere while tillage also impacted the physical stabilization of organic carbon. In the case of tillage system, in the short-term experiment, greater N2O and CO2 emissions and lower CH4 oxidation were observed. However, in the long-term, both tillage systems presented the same N2O emission and the CH4 oxidation was greater under no-tillage, aspects that were also observed in the macroaggregate incubation. Moreover, the soil presented a greater proportion of water-stable macroaggregates and greater C-enriched microaggregates within those macroaggregates when increasing the number of years under no-tillage. In the case of the impact of the nitrogen fertilization on the greenhouse gases emission, the application of increasing N rates by both organic and mineral sources increased the soil N2O emission. As a difference, for a given N rate, similar amount of soil N2O was quantified for both fertilizer types. The mineral nitrogen fertilization did not improve the C protection within soil aggregates while the organic fertilization caused a low increase in their stability. In the dryland semiarid agroecosystems of the Mediterranean, the combination of no-tillage and fertilization with medium N rates of pig slurry is an optimum strategy in terms of greenhouse gases minimization and maintenance of crop productivity. Moreover, both practices improve the aggregate stability maximizing the amount of organic carbon protected and improving soil structure

Mots Clés : Conreu Fertilització nitrogenada Carboni orgànic del sòl Gasos d’efecte hivernacle Laboreo Fertilización nitrogenada Gases de efecto invernadero Tillage Nitrogen fertilization Soil organic carbon

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Page publiée le 20 octobre 2015, mise à jour le 4 février 2019