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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Afrique du Sud → 2007 → Response to selection for downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) and maize streak virus resistance in three quality protein maize populations in Mozambique

University of KwaZulu-Natal (2007)

Response to selection for downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) and maize streak virus resistance in three quality protein maize populations in Mozambique

Mariote, David

Titre : Response to selection for downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) and maize streak virus resistance in three quality protein maize populations in Mozambique

Auteur : Mariote, David

Université de soutenance : University of KwaZulu-Natal

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2007

Résumé
Quality protein maize (QPM) has high nutritional value, but production is threatened by downy mildew (DM) and maize streak virus disease (MSVD) among other constraints. There are few studies of DM and MSVD resistance in QPM cultivars. The objective of this study was to improve resistance to DM and MSVD in three QPM populations. This was realized through ascertaining farmers’ key production constraints and special preferences for cultivars ; determining the utility of recurrent selection method for improvement of three QPM populations (SussumaS2, ZM521Q and Pop62SRQ) ; and determining grain yield potential. The study was conducted in Mozambique for DM and in Zimbabwe for MSV, during 2003 to 2006. Surveys were conducted in Manica and Angonia districts in Mozambique to ascertain farmers’ perceptions and preferences for maize varieties, especially QPM. Participatory rural appraisal tools that included semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to collect data. Results showed that farmers predominantly grew open pollinated varieties and fewer normal maize hybrids (non-QPM), and grain yield was estimated to be very low (0.2 to 0.6 t ha-1). Results showed that drought and insect pests were the dominant constraints to maize productivity in Mozambique, while diseases were ranked third. Downy mildew disease and MSVD were considered to be the most important diseases reducing maize productivity. Farmers also showed high preference for high yielding and early maturity cultivars in all areas. Predominantly, farmers were still using their local landraces because of sweet taste, particularly for home consumption and flint grain for storage. Farmers’ access to improved cultivars was limited due to high seed prices on the local market. Research priorities as perceived by the farmers included breeding for resistance to drought, grain weevils and diseases and sweetness. Generally, farmers showed little knowledge of QPM varieties and the importance of this trait, but they observed that the few QPM varieties they knew had some weaknesses such as poor storability and susceptibility to DM and MSVD which required improvement. These results should be considered in breeding new cultivars, both normal and QPM. To improve DM and MSV disease resistance in QPM varieties, S1 recurrent selection was conducted in three QPM populations, Sussuma, ZM521Q and Pop62SRQ at Umbeluzi Research Station in Mozambique and at CIMMYT-Harare Research Quality protein maize (QPM) has high nutritional value, but production is threatened by downy mildew (DM) and maize streak virus disease (MSVD) among other constraints. There are few studies of DM and MSVD resistance in QPM cultivars. The objective of this study was to improve resistance to DM and MSVD in three QPM populations. This was realized through ascertaining farmers’ key production constraints and special preferences for cultivars ; determining the utility of recurrent selection method for improvement of three QPM populations (SussumaS2, ZM521Q and Pop62SRQ) ; and determining grain yield potential. The study was conducted in Mozambique for DM and in Zimbabwe for MSV, during 2003 to 2006. Surveys were conducted in Manica and Angonia districts in Mozambique to ascertain farmers’ perceptions and preferences for maize varieties, especially QPM. Participatory rural appraisal tools that included semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to collect data. Results showed that farmers predominantly grew open pollinated varieties and fewer normal maize hybrids (non-QPM), and grain yield was estimated to be very low (0.2 to 0.6 t ha-1). Results showed that drought and insect pests were the dominant constraints to maize productivity in Mozambique, while diseases were ranked third. Downy mildew disease and MSVD were considered to be the most important diseases reducing maize productivity. Farmers also showed high preference for high yielding and early maturity cultivars in all areas. Predominantly, farmers were still using their local landraces because of sweet taste, particularly for home consumption and flint grain for storage. Farmers’ access to improved cultivars was limited due to high seed prices on the local market. Research priorities as perceived by the farmers included breeding for resistance to drought, grain weevils and diseases and sweetness. Generally, farmers showed little knowledge of QPM varieties and the importance of this trait, but they observed that the few QPM varieties they knew had some weaknesses such as poor storability and susceptibility to DM and MSVD which required improvement. These results should be considered in breeding new cultivars, both normal and QPM. To improve DM and MSV disease resistance in QPM varieties, S1 recurrent selection was conducted in three QPM populations, Sussuma, ZM521Q and Pop62SRQ at Umbeluzi Research Station in Mozambique and at CIMMYT-Harare Research.

Mots clés : Maize — Diseases and pests – Mozambique — Disease and pest resistance — Genetic aspects.—Breeding – Varieties —.Downy Mildew diseases – Peronosporaceae — Fungal diseases of plants — .Virus diseases of plants — Plant breeding

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