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King Abdulaziz University (2012)

Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Remotely Sensed Sea Surface Temperature in The Southern Red Sea

Taqi, Ahmed Mohammed

Titre : Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Remotely Sensed Sea Surface Temperature in The Southern Red Sea

الأنماط الزمانية والمكانية لدرجة حرارة المياه السطحية المستشعرة عن بعد في جنوب البحر الأحمر

Auteur : Taqi, Ahmed Mohammed

Université de soutenance : King Abdulaziz University

Grade : Master 2012

Remote sensing techniques were used to study the sea surface temperature (SST) patterns in the southern Red Sea for the period January 1993 to December 2007. The results indicated that the surface temperature decreases from the Strait of Bab-el-Mandab towards the north. The temperature is higher on the eastern side of the sea compared to the western side. The changes of SST are associated with air temperature variations and the across-shore wind component especially in Jeddah and Hodeidah. The impact of evaporation is dominant in Gazan region. Multiple regression models for the SST fluctuations were applied to explain the observed SST. The spectrum of SST showed annual and semi-annual cycles in all sections. However, the most energetic component is the annual cycle. The semi-annual variation may be due to the effects of surface currents and seasonal changes in the wind system over this part of the Red Sea. A new cycle appears in the Hodeidah region ; that is the four-month cycle which disappears northward in the study area. From SST satellite data, is inferred the surface circulation of the southern Red Sea. This could be related to the strong winter (SE) monsoon in this area of the sea. According to monthly average data computed from SST images from Jan. 1993 to Dec. 2007. That have been created from monthly average using Surfer © 8.0 Package. The horizontal distribution of monthly SST during summer season just to the north of the strait of Bab-el-Mandab indicates an anticyclonic movement on the western side of the sea. In winter, the surface water flows from Gulf of Aden to the Red Sea along the Arabian side and turns in a cyclonic direction towards the western side. The monthly and annual averages animation shows that the horizontal distribution of the SST is higher between 16o-20oN gradually decreasing north and south of this region. Also SST increases gradually from west to east on the same latitude. This could be related to due to the increase of evaporation and the decrease in the air temperature. Transition periods between cold and warm months are observed in October and May respectively. Annual SST patterns from 1993 to 2007 show low temperatures during 1993 and high temperatures during 1996. The warm period (1997-1999) and (2004-2007) may be due to the El Niño effect and the cold period (1993-1994) and (2000-2003) may be associated with La Niña cycle.


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