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Accueil du site → Doctorat → États-Unis → 1988 → Urban water supply response to droughts in Maiduguri, Nigeria, in the context of the recent Sudano-Sahelian droughts : 1960-85

Pennsylvania State University (1988)

Urban water supply response to droughts in Maiduguri, Nigeria, in the context of the recent Sudano-Sahelian droughts : 1960-85

Odihi, John Onu

Titre : Urban water supply response to droughts in Maiduguri, Nigeria, in the context of the recent Sudano-Sahelian droughts : 1960-85

Auteur : Odihi, John Onu

Université de soutenance : Pennsylvania State University

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 1988

Résumé
This study investigated urban drought water supply-related problems in Maiduguri, Nigeria, since the 1960’s using the disaster analysis approach developed by the Disaster Research Unit (DRU) at the University of Bradford, England. Maiduguri’s water supply services are both inadequate and unreliable. However, there is little connection between the observed water service conditions and drought, since the city’s water supply is not dependent on immediate rainfall or surface waters. Differential water rates in the city and bias of the cheaper rates in favor of the high-income households leaves many low-income households inadequately supplied. The water rate irony of higher cost burdens for the low-income households generates an inequality pattern of water supply, namely, low and relatively insecure supply conditions for low-income households and wards, and high and relatively more adequate supply conditions for high-income households and wards. A type of drought, supply system drought, is imposed on water consumers by the supply system. It is defined as a condition of inadequate water supply when, due to water supply system-related problems, available water resources cannot be tapped or delivered to consumers. Supply system drought in Maiduguri is caused by political, socio-economic and technology transfer-related problems in Nigeria. A damage mitigation concept, mitigation effectiveness threshold level (METL) was coined and applied to the Maiduguri urban drought situation. The METL income for the 1980-85 drought was N300 per capita per annum. Above this income level drought damage appears to be nonexistent, but it does exist and accentuates with declining income. Response to drought in Maiduguri is of two types : a short-term response generally engaged in by the low-income households to mitigate the immediate effects of supply system drought, and a long-term response by the high-income households and community development associations which address long-term solutions to the drought problem.

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