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Wageningen University (2014)

Conservation, heritage, tourism and livelihoods : the case of Uibasen Twyfelfontein Conservancy, Namibia

Ndjiharine, S.

Titre : Conservation, heritage, tourism and livelihoods : the case of Uibasen Twyfelfontein Conservancy, Namibia

Auteur : Ndjiharine, S.

Université de soutenance : Wageningen University

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2014

Descriptif
The independence of Namibia in 1990 did not just brought political emancipation to its people, but it coincided with a time, when international ground breaking policies were made to reverse the protectionist conservation methods, which were practiced over vast areas of the African continent and in Namibia. With independence, the Namibian government was aimed at redressing the protectionist conservation methods, for local communal communities to be involved in wildlife management and to benefit from conservation. This has resulted in the amendment of the Nature Conservation Ordinance (4 of 1975), for the state to devolve user rights of land, wildlife and natural resources to communal communities which form legal institutions known as conservancies. The development of conservancies in Namibia is regarded as the driving force behind natural resource conservation, tourism and rural development in communal areas. However, the scope of the devolution of these user rights, to conservancy members is contested by other policies, deployed in communal conservancies. The Uibasen Twyfelfontein conservancy was declared as a conservancy in 1999 and the state has devolved user rights of land, wildlife and natural resources to the Uibasen Twyfelfontein community to manage and to benefit from the conservation of resources in the conservancy. However, the National Heritage Council of Namibia, an organizational institution enacted by the Heritage Act of 2004 was also empowered to manage the country’s national heritage resources, including the Twyfelfontein World Heritage Site, situated within the boundary of the Uibasen Twyfelfontein Conservancy. This study was aimed at understanding the operations of the Uibasen Twyfelfontein Conservancy and the National Heritage Council of Namibia as two policy arrangements which are employed over the same area and community. The study used the policy arrangement approach elements (actors, rules, resources and discourses), to analyze how the two arrangements have shaped processes in the conservancy. In addition to the policy arrangement approach, the sustainable livelihood approach was used to show the impacts of the arrangements on the livelihood activities of the local Uibasen Twyfelfontein conservancy community. The analysis of data for this study was gathered through : 24 interviews with key stakeholders, document reviews and observation.

Mots clés : nature conservation / natural resources / tourism / rural development / heritage areas / livelihoods / local population / namibia

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