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Wageningen University (2012)

Costs and benefits of foot and mouth disease vaccination practices in commercial dairy farms in Central Ethiopia

Beyi, A.

Titre : Costs and benefits of foot and mouth disease vaccination practices in commercial dairy farms in Central Ethiopia

Auteur : Beyi, A.

Université de soutenance : Wageningen University

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2012

Résumé
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Ethiopia. The economic impact of FMD to the dairy sector is substantially high due to subsequent milk loss, mortality and premature culling. The objectives of this study were to estimate the financial losses of an outbreak and to predict costs and benefits of different vaccination practices in commercial dairy farms in central Ethiopia. A stochastic Monte Carlo cost-benefit simulation model was developed at farm level. The costs and benefits of three scenarios : no vaccination, reactive vaccination and preventive vaccination with an imported quadrivalent vaccine and two sub-scenarios under each main Scenario : treatment and no treatment during outbreak were modelled. The input data were gathered through a field survey at Bishoftu/Debre Zeit, central Ethiopia, expert opinion and literature. During the survey, face to face interviews were carried out with 31 farmers about FMD occurrence and the vaccination status of their farms in the last five years. Six international and four national FMD experts gave their opinions about the likelihood of morbidity and mortality under different scenarios. Out of 31 visited farms, 23 of them had an FMD outbreak at least once in the last five years. The estimated short-term farm level direct financial loss due to outbreak was 45,131ETB (€1,962, 1€=23ETB). The financial losses between the non-vaccinated farms and those undergone reactive and preventive vaccinations prior to the outbreak were not significantly different for all considered variables. The simulation output presented that treatment of sick animals during an outbreak is cost effective for all scenarios. Biannual preventive vaccination with a quadrivalent vaccine has predicted annual net benefits of 21,117ETB (€918) without treatment and 22,446ETB (€976) with treatment over no vaccination/no treatment scenario and the benefit-cost ratio of 5 and 8, respectively. The overall short-term farm level direct losses associated with previous outbreaks in Bishoftu within a short period of time indicates that the control of FMD is paramount important in the dairy sector in Ethiopia. During outbreaks, neither reactive nor preventive vaccination was helpful in preventing clinical disease, and this finding calls for investigation of why the previous vaccinations failed to do so. The economic damage of an outbreak is lower if there is biannual vaccination and the loss further decreases if it is combined with treatment when there is an outbreak. Therefore, preventive biannual vaccination with a quadrivalent vaccine coupled with treatment whenever there is an outbreak is cost effective in the dairy sector provided that the vaccine strains match with the field strains in central Ethiopia and the vaccine is correctly administered.

Mots clés : cost benefit analysis / dairy farming / business economics / foot and mouth disease / vaccination / animal diseases / costs / simulation models / ethiopia / east africa / commercial farming / losses

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Page publiée le 25 janvier 2015, mise à jour le 12 octobre 2018