Informations et ressources scientifiques
sur le développement des zones arides et semi-arides

Accueil du site → Doctorat → Pays-Bas → No runoff, no soil loss : soil and water conservation in hedgerow barrier systems

Wageningen University (1995)

No runoff, no soil loss : soil and water conservation in hedgerow barrier systems

Kiepe, P.

Titre : No runoff, no soil loss : soil and water conservation in hedgerow barrier systems

Auteur : Kiepe, P.

Université de soutenance : Wageningen University

Grade  : PhD thesis 1995

Résumé
Land degradation by water erosion represents a serious, and fast increasing, environmental threat. Hedgerow barriers control water erosion through the presence of the tree stem and through an increase in infiltration beneath the hedgerow. The infiltration rate beneath hedgerows is 3-8 times higher than in the alley where crops are grown. Soil water content measurements in hedgerow barrier systems indicate that infiltrated water penetrates the soil beneath hedgerows deeper than the soil beneath the alley and the control. An analytical framework for calculating the impact of hedgerows and mulch on infiltration, runoff and soil loss is presented here. The framework was expanded with algorithms to calculate the impact of hedgerows of various densities, ranging from 1-4 rows. The framework was applied on a seasonal basis and the predictions were satisfactory. Extreme events can be explained when dynamic soil and plant conditions are incorporated. A dynamic simulation model called SHIELD has been developed that explains the experimental observations for runoff, soil loss and crop yields using daily time steps. Application of the model illustrates the importance of dynamic soil and plant conditions to the amount of soil being lost and shows that SHIELD can be used to compute the maximum desired distance between hedgerows with respect to tolerable soil loss.

Mots clés : erosion control / water conservation / soil conservation / wind protection / shelterbelts / hedges / mulching / straw mulches / peat / infiltration / hydraulic conductivity / seepage

Présentation

Version intégrale (5 Mb)

Page publiée le 16 janvier 2015, mise à jour le 1er janvier 2018