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University of São Paulo USP (2014)

Dinâmica do microbioma da rizosfera de mandacaru na Caatinga

Ferreira, Clederson

Titre : Dinâmica do microbioma da rizosfera de mandacaru na Caatinga

Dynamics of mandacaru rhizosphere microbiome in the Caatinga

Auteur : Ferreira, Clederson

Université de soutenance : Universidade de São Paulo (USP)

Grade : Maîtrise Microbiologie Agricole 2014

Résumé
The present world scenario of climate change, global warming and the increase in areas undergoing desertification, have directly impacted on current patterns of agricultural crop production. The Caatinga is a specific Brazilian biome because of its semi-arid climate, hot and low rainfall, and the temperature that reaches the 60°C in the dry season. The Caatinga has a huge biodiversity and much of its diversity is not found in any other biome. A peculiar characteristic of the Caatinga biome is the occurrence of two very contrasting seasons during the year, the winter which is characterized by a rainy season and summer the dry season. The vegetation is composed by Euphorbiaceae , Bromeliaceae and Cactaceae, represented by Cereus jamacaru (Mandacaru) Pilosocereus gounellei (xique-xique) and Melocactus sp. (head-to-brother). Mandacaru is the plant that can survive through the specifics climate conditions of the Caatinga biome such as high temperatures and low water availability and this is probably due to some structural and morphological adaptations that contribute to its survival. Therefore, we assessed which microorganisms are associated with the plant rhizosphere, and which microbial groups contribute to the maintenance of the host throughout these adverse conditions. Also, we identified which are the most abundant microbial groups in these conditions and which microbial functions are more abundant in both evaluated seasons. Thus the present study assessed the mandacaru rhizosphere microbiome through a partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomic sequencing. The bacterial community was well represented by the phyla Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The Actinobacteria was the most abundant microbial phyla in the dry season according to shotgun sequencing while the Acidobacteria was the most abundant microbial phyla in the rainy season. Overall, the 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the most abundant groups and additionally, and genes related to disease resistance functions were more abundant in the dry season. Genes related to nitrogen metabolism were more abundant during the rainy season revealing some of the potential traits that the mandacaru can explore from its microbiome.

Mots Clés : Caatinga Comunidade bacteriana Metagenoma Rizosfera Bacterial community Caatinga Metagenome Rhizosphere

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