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Universidade de Brasília (2012)

Potencial de erosão na Bacia de Drenagem do Açude Orós – CE

Frota, Patrícia Vasconcelos

Titre : Potencial de erosão na Bacia de Drenagem do Açude Orós – CE

Potential erosionin Watershed Dam Orós - CE

Auteur : Frota, Patrícia Vasconcelos

Université de soutenance : Universidade de Brasília

Grade : Doutorado em Ciências Florestais 2012

Soil erosion is a process that may occur all over the earth surface and, among other natural processes, it is responsible for modeling landscapes. Agricultural activities have a great impact on natural resources in order to ensure food supply for the world population, which requires definition of strategies to incorporate new areas and enhance its techniques to increase food production. Studies on the physical environment are important to support better understanding of the risk of soil erosion. The land occupation model is causing most of soil degradation in arid and semiarid regions in the world. The semi-arid region is vulnerable to water erosion, mainly due to its climatic and edaphic characteristics, and the unsustainable land use practices, which result in soil impoverishment for cropping and surface water quality deployment that is considered the most important water resources available in that region.This work aimed to map Potential Soil Erosion in the Orós Basin located in the semiarid region, where rainfall spatial and temporal distribution is highly irregular, also showing high average annual temperatures. The study area is predominantly occupied by ground based crystalline terrains, with poorly developed soils, shallow and rocky, quite susceptible to erosion. The typical vegetation is savanna, sparsely distributed in the area, with shrubby, offering little soil erosion protection. To mitigate impacts caused by the new human occupations, it was necessary to acquire dataset of the physical environment, especially those related to the risk of soil erosion. Based on it, this study intended to identify the physical environment constrains that determine levels of soil erosion susceptibility. The results showed that an irregular seasonal distribution of rainfall erosivity, mostly concentrated between March and April. Additionally, I observed that depending on soil types, the erodibility was classified as medium-high. The spatial topographic factor showed predominantly low values throughout the study site while low values were observed only in isolated areas

Mots clés : Erosão do solo Semiárido brasileiro Erosividade Erodibilidade


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