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Universidade de Brasília (2013)

Vulnerabilidade e adaptação da vida às secas : desafios à sustentabilidade rural familiar nos semiáridos nordestinos

Lindoso, Diego Pereira

Titre : Vulnerabilidade e adaptação da vida às secas : desafios à sustentabilidade rural familiar nos semiáridos nordestinos

Auteur : Lindoso, Diego Pereira

Université de soutenance : Universidade de Brasília

Grade : Doutorado em Desenvolvimento Sustentável 2013

Résumé
The present work is a reinterpretation of an old issue from new scientific approaches and political agendas. The old issue is the adverse impact of drought events within Brazilian Semi-Arid region. The new scientific approaches are vulnerability and resilience sciences. The new political agendas are three : adaption to climate change, sustainable development and coping with Semi-arid conditions. The dissertation’s focus is smallholder farming’s vulnerability within Brazilian Semi-Arid region. The general goals are two : to understand how farmers are affected by and how they respond to climate variability and to drought. Surveys were undertaken in two case studies, totalizing about 290 interviews. The first case study was in Bahia state, covering four municipalities : Remanso, Uauá, Casa Nova e Juazeiro. It occurred in July 2011, a rainy year. The other case study was held in Ceará state (Cariri region) and covers one municipality : Salitre. The field research was undertaken in January 2013, the year after one of the most intense drought events in the last 50 years. Institutional interviews were also applied in these municipalities, as well as in other municipalities in Ceará and Pernambuco states. The results point out that vulnerability is a context, determined by causal chains and feed back cycles across the scales of smallholder farmers’ systems. Adaptations are specific actions in these chains and cycles that moderate sensitivities, foster adaptive capacity, accommodate and recover from climate impacts. Additionally, adaptation occurs in landscape scales, covering the family systems, agriculture systems and the political and institutional framework on smallholder farming. The landscape perspective allows explaining the reason why the impacts on family systems were relatively low in 2012, even though the drought event was severe and had had a huge impact on agricultural systems. The conclusions show that the safety net provided by welfare and emergences policies were paramount to reduce impacts in food security and water security, In contrast, the fragilities of institutional and policy framework on farming support explain why the farmers were unable to prevent and accommodate impacts in their agricultural systems.

Mots clés : Mudanças climáticas Agricultura familiar Sustentabilidade

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