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Universidade de Brasília (2013)

Novas ameaças a uma adversidade histórica : clima e agricultura familiar no sertão nordestino

Pedroso, Carolina Pereira

Titre : Novas ameaças a uma adversidade histórica : clima e agricultura familiar no sertão nordestino

Auteur : Pedroso, Carolina Pereira

Université de soutenance : Universidade de Brasília (UNB)

Grade : Mestrado em Desenvolvimento Sustentável 2013

The population of Northeastern Brazil is exposed to vulnerabilities that arise from a sum of political, social, economic and environmental factors. For decades public policies aiming at promotion of development of the region have led to governmental actions that were sometimes misleading, especially with regard to land tenure and environmental degradation. The rural areas of the region are characterized by a large share of family farmers, with a high contingent living under extreme poverty. The dynamics of rainfall is marked by a high variability which shall suffer severe changes under different climate change scenarios. Located in the Southwestern State of Piauí, the region of Gilbués is marked by a process of intense desertification. Despite having municipalities inside and outside the delimitation of Northeastern Semiarid, this region also suffers with the effects of droughts and high rates of evapotranspiration. Therefore, we argue the need to assess the vulnerability of family farmers to climate change aiming at more effective adaptation strategies. Understanding the multi-scale causes of human vulnerability helps identifying multiple scales of social, economic and political interventions, in addition to contribute to cope with the impacts of climate change. This work aims to : a) identify and analyze vulnerabilities of the population of the region of Gilbués to climate change ; and b) discuss the influence of public policy on the establishment of strategies to reduce these vulnerabilities, considering the main active policies in this region (Bolsa Família, P1MC, Rural Credit and Garantia Safra). The methodology developed- Vulnerability Assessment System of Family Farmers (SAVAF)- generated an index derived from the revision of the literature, observations in the field and discussions among the research team of the Brazilian Climate Network dedicated to regional development issues. It is based on secondary and primary data analysis from semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and questionnaires applied to family farmers in the region. As a result, a multidimensional profile of the regional vulnerability from several communities is generated. It also shows the main difficulties of access to different attributes of vulnerability in each location. After this assessment framework, an analysis of the influence of public policy on the establishment of mechanisms for reducing vulnerabilities led to identification of gaps between the national policies, their instruments and the potential mitigation of vulnerability of family agriculture in the study area. It is recognized that such policies have the potential to improve some aspects of the farmers’ wellbeing, however, some of these policies do not attend all farmers of the region, since they focused just on municipalities inside the semi-arid region. Moreover, the elements of vulnerability remain numerous, and affect the adaptability of farmers. The improvement of procedures that deal with some aspects of vulnerability such as the average income, level of education, land concentration, access to water, among others, are important for reducing the regional vulnerability.

Mots Clés : Mudanças climáticas Indicadores Regiões áridas


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