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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Brésil → Caracterização e manejo da gramínea Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv. (Capim-Gordura) : uma espécie invasora do cerrado

Universidade de Brasília (2006)

Caracterização e manejo da gramínea Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv. (Capim-Gordura) : uma espécie invasora do cerrado

Martins, Carlos Romero

Titre  : Caracterização e manejo da gramínea Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv. (Capim-Gordura) : uma espécie invasora do cerrado

Auteur : Martins, Carlos Romero

Université de soutenance : Universidade de Brasília

Grade : Doutorado em Ecologia 2006

Résumé
Biological invasion by exotic species is considered to be one of the principal threats to biodiversity conservation in protected areas. Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv. (molasses grass) an grass native to African has an ample geographic distribution and can be found in tropical and subtropical regions. Due to its aggressiveness, molasses grass is considered to be the exotic grass that has had the greatest impact on the flora of the National Park of Brasilia. This study was conducted in the National Park of Brasilia between 1999 and 2005. The principal characteristics of molasses grass were determined along with the use of fire and integrated control methods (fire + herbicide + hand removal). A list of the exotic grasses present in the National Park was also elaborated. Molasses grass is present in 4.563 of the 30.000 ha of the National Park, being found in different habitats. The vegetation of the area used in this study is classified as “Cerrado Ralo” and molasses grass covers approximately 50% of the ground layer. Of the four cultivars of molasses grass cited as present in Brazil only “Roxo” and “Cabelo de Negro” are present in this conservation unit. These cultivars have genetic variability, however the anatomical differences found between the two are not sufficient to separate them into different species. The reproductive cycle lasts approximately three months and about 30% of the inflorescenses of the “Cabelo de Negro” cultivar have of fertile spikes while the number for the “Roxo” cultivar is about 29%. Seed production in the study area was 74 kg/ha and 116 kg/ha for the “Cabelo de Negro” and “Roxo” cultivars respectively. Wind is probably not an important seed dispersal agent in the National Park of Brasilia. Recently collected seeds of both cultivars of molasses grass have high viability and dormancy. Under laboratory conditions, about 18 months are required to completely overcome seed dormancy. Germination of the cultivars “Roxo” and “Cabelo de Negro” was 64 and 43% respectively after six months storage. Burial of seeds up to 3 cm deep does not impede seedling emergence, however a depth of 4 cm does inhibit emergence. Under field conditions, germination occurs from December to March however water stress during the dry season, from June to October, does not eliminate all of the recently established seedlings. As a management tool fire does not eliminate the seed bank and one controlled burn was not sufficient to control molasses grass. Integrated control methods reduced coverage of molasses grass from 50 to <0.6% and reduced its biomass by over 99%. Due to the high regenerative capacity of molasses grass, a monitoring program of at least three years is necessary in the areas where integrated control is used. A considerable floristic richness (409 species) was recorded in the experimental area and the vegetation showed a high degree of resiliency. Residue analysis for Glyphosate showed very low levels in the soil. Twenty eight species of exotic grasses were identified in the National Park and this represents 17.7% of the total number of grasses cited for this conservation unit. For the effective preservation of the native vegetation in the National Park a monitoring and control/eradication program of all exotic species encountered in the Park is necessary.

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Page publiée le 9 janvier 2015, mise à jour le 6 juillet 2017