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Sudan University of Science and Technology (2013)

Seasonal Variation in Hafirs` Water Quality in North Kordufan State

Osman, mohammed hamadan amara

Titre : Seasonal Variation in Hafirs` Water Quality in North Kordufan State

Auteur : Osman, mohammed hamadan amara

Université de soutenance : Sudan University of Science and Technology

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2013

Résumé _ Hafir is a known method of rain water harvesting (RWH) which is used widely in Sudan and all over the world for drinking water and other household’s uses in arid and semi arid zones. This study was carried out in year 2012 to identify the seasonal variation of water quality of Hafirs in North Kordufan State. The study covered four Hafirs, in Shaken Locality (Abu Haraz administrative unit)l of 2500 m3 design capacity and all used as traditional Hafirs without any treatment facilities for drinking and other household purposes , and they are : Almamasouca village Hafir , Alayaira village Hafir ,Algalabai1 village Hafir and Algalabai2 village Hafir. Qualitative characteristics of Hafirs` water were measured in four periods : March, June, September and December, using onsite membrane filtration technique for biological analysis (E-Coli & Total Coli form) and standard laboratory techniques for chemical and physical tests. Also data were collected from the nearest central healthcare facility in the study area to investigate the predominance of water related diseases .Biological quality of all studied Hafirs was found to be very poor with very high levels of E-Coli and Fecal coli form counts in most seasons with peaks in June and minimum in December and this can be simply correlated to intensive run-off from faecally polluted dry soils to Hafirs positions. Investigation of water related diseases in nearby healthcare facility for years 2010, 2012 and part of 2013 showed a very high cases of all water related infections with noticeable incidents of deaths and increasing numbers of Bilharziasis cases were recorded. This is a direct reflection of poor biological water quality. Little seasonal variation in all Chemical and Physical properties of water samples can be clearly noticed but most values comply with the guidelines of the World Health Organization and Sudanese Meteorology Organization except Iron in Alayaira and Algalabia1 Hafirs and turbidity in all Hafirs throughout the seasons with peaks in rainy season (June-September). It is recommended that All Hafirs must be fitted with slow sand filters and chlorination tanks and surrounding protection fences to improve bacterial and physical quality of water.


Page publiée le 13 septembre 2015, mise à jour le 29 octobre 2017