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Sudan University of Science and Technology (2008)

COMPETITION ON RANGE RESOURCES AND ITS Role ON THE CONFLICT IN DARFUR. A CASE STUDY “EDDAEIN LOCALITY” SOUTH DARFUR STATE

ABDALLA, IBRAHIM ALI ELNOUR

Titre : COMPETITION ON RANGE RESOURCES AND ITS Role ON THE CONFLICT IN DARFUR. A CASE STUDY “EDDAEIN LOCALITY” SOUTH DARFUR STATE

Auteur : ABDALLA, IBRAHIM ALI ELNOUR

Université de soutenance : Sudan University of Science and Technology

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2008

Résumé
Over the last three decades demand on natural resources has increased as the population of man and his livestock has increased, and the resources have eroded by unwise expansion of farming, grazing and desertification. Rainfall has been low, populations have migrated to more fertile areas, and political instability and violence have increased. Natural resources are being fought over and are being destroyed as feature of the violence. The main factors for conflict over natural resources have been significantly exacerbated by the current crisis. Actions include the destruction of crops and water points, the restriction of livestock migration causing local over grazing and the destruction of trees and rangelands. The range resources, in Eddaein locality which is located in the south east part of South Darfur State, were assessed within two seasons ; 2005 and 2006. Information about human population and livestock numbers and farming expansion in addition to socioeconomic studies for the inhabitants and nomadic visitors were collected from government departments and the targeted groups. The principle objective of the study was to investigate whether competition over range resources is the main cause of the tribal and political conflicts in western Sudan. The specific aim was to formulate strategies and approaches, for suitable management systems for the rangelands, at least to reduce the causes of conflicts to the minimum. The study area was divided into three equal sections, first section was located in the wet season grazing area, the second section located in the winter grazing area (transitional zone), while the third section was located in the dry season grazing area south of the study area . Biomass productivity, carrying capacity, stocking rate, total plant and species composition, plant species frequencies, ground cover and plant species densities were assessed. Data concerning increase in population, livestock numbers, and the agricultural expansion for the last fifteen years were obtained from the government departments. Questionnaire data were used for socioeconomic studies in the area for the nomads and the sedentary farmers. Range production all over the area was found to be o.780 tons/ hectare, while the forage available for grazing animals (50%) of the total production was found to be 0.390 tons/ hectare. Plant composition in the study area was found to be 61.6%, litter 14.9 and bare soil 23.5%. Percentage composition for the five species which dominated the area was (17.6%) for Eragrostis aspera, (11.8%) for Schenoefeldia gracilis, Cenchrus setigerus (11%), Aristida spp. (9.4%) and Sida cordofolia (9.3%). The desirable forage composition (decreasers) was (27.7%), less desirable species (increasers) was (52.9%), while the composition of none forage species (invaders) (19.4%). Based on the above percentages the range condition was classified as fair. The densities of the five species which dominated the area were 31 plant/m² for Eragrostis aspera, 21 plant/ m² for Schenoefeldia gracilis , 12 plant/ m² for Cenchrus setigerus, 11 plant/ m² for Dactyloctenium agyptium and 8 plant/ m² for Aristida spp The density for the forage plants (Decreasers) was 66 plant/ m², less desirable plants (increasers) 93 plant/ m², while undesirable plants( invaders) was 12 plant/ m². The frequencies of the five plant species which dominated the area was 64.8% for Eragrostis aspera, 53.1% for Cenchrus setigerus, 48.8% for Schenoefeldia gracilis, 48.6% Dactyloctenium agyptium and 39.5% for Bracharia spp. The population density in the study area were found to be 10 persons for square kilometer in year 1993, increased to 12 persons per square kilometer in year 1998, it became 13 persons in 2003 and reached to 15 persons per square kilometer in 2006. Animal Units (AU) in the study area was found to be 1,229,613, 1501223, 1,684,019, and 1,909,937, in 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2006 respectively. The total area cultivated in Eddaein area was 1,1984,61 feddans in year 1991, 1,553,618feddans in year 1996, reached to 1,992,582 feddans in 2001 while in 2006 declined to 962,549 feddans. Some illegal activities that are considered as main causes of conflicts between the people were observed during data collection. The highest percentage of these illegal activities is 72% representing cultivation in and around the migration routes, cultivation inside and around the rest area represent 16.2%, illegal enclosures represent 2.33% while cultivation in and around the water points represent 9.3% of these illegal activities. The questionnaire data showed that majority of the two groups interviewed agreed about the deterioration of the range resources, scarcity of forage and competition over this scarce forage which normally causes problems in social situation and causes social and political conflic

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Page publiée le 2 février 2016, mise à jour le 20 juin 2017