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University of Helsinki (2013)

Resettlement and Irrigation Schemes as keys to Development ? The case of New Halfa Agricultural Scheme, Sudan

Wallin, Marianna

Titre : Resettlement and Irrigation Schemes as keys to Development ? The case of New Halfa Agricultural Scheme, Sudan

Auteur : Wallin, Marianna

Université de soutenance : University of Helsinki

Grade : Master 2013

Présentation
The construction of large dams is causing human displacement and resettlement. In many cases indigenous groups of people are forced to move due to these development projects and are at a risk of losing their livelihoods, social networks and rights to customary land. This can cause impoverishment and marginalization. Constructing dams is usually initiated by the state and multinational organizations and have a top-down approach. The indigenous groups of people are not well considered during the planning process and their wishes about the development and resettlement are not properly acknowledged. This may eventually result in lack of integration and rootlessness in their new settlements. In Sudan the construction of large dams is often combined with the development of irrigation schemes, where the displaced people can be resettled as tenant farmers. The construction of the Aswan High Dam at the border between Sudan and Egypt in 1960s caused the inundation of the Nubian town of Wadi Halfa. Most of the residents were resettled in the New Halfa irrigation scheme in east Sudan. New Halfa proved a failure for the state and the farmers as it failed to meet the goals set out for it. The Khasm el Girba dam that feeds the irrigation scheme with water lost some of its capacity and consequently made irrigation more difficult. The agricultural land also lost fertility and the farmers are forced to work harder to make farming profitable. The local nomadic inhabitants of the original area have also lost pastoral land due to the project. Large differences between the livelihoods and economic situations of the residents have emerged which has led to social segregation. This study discusses the social consequences of resettlement and the profitability of irrigation schemes as a development initiative. The study was conducted in Sudan during the summer of 2011 in Khartoum and New Halfa agricultural scheme. The study states that the conditions for agriculture have deteriorated in New Halfa and the farmers are forced to depend on additional sources of income to secure their livelihoods. The different groups of people within the scheme are socially segregated and live in areas with a varying degree of infrastructure and services. The original planning of the scheme failed to acknowledge the needs of the different ethnic groups which led to detachment and social inequality.

Présentation

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Page publiée le 6 juin 2015, mise à jour le 4 mars 2019