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Colegio de Postgraduados (COLPOS) Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) 2013

Evaluación de la interacción genotipo por práctica de labranza (G x T) del cultivo de trigo

Ponce Cruz, Ruy

Titre : Evaluación de la interacción genotipo por práctica de labranza (G x T) del cultivo de trigo

EVALUATION OF THE GENOTYPE BY TILLAGE INTERACTION (G x T) FOR DIFFERENT DURUM AND BREAD WHEAT CULTIVARS/GENOTYPES

Auteur : Ponce Cruz, Ruy

Etablissement de soutenance : Colegio de Postgraduados (COLPOS) Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)

Grade : Maestría 2013

Résumé
This research is part of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre’s (CIMMYT) effort to evaluate genotype by tillage interactions (GxT) in terms of development and performance of wheat under different water stress levels in order to optimize wheat breeding for different agronomic practices. The experiment was conducted at the experiment station CENEB (Campo Experimental Norman E. Borlaug), near Ciudad Obregón, Sonora, Mexico (lat. 27.33°N, long. 109.09°W, 38 m a.s.l.). The soil is a Chromic Haplotorrert (Hyposodic Vertisol, Calcaric, Chromic) with low organic matter content (<1 %) in an arid climate, with an annual rainfall of 320 mm. The treatments were conventional tilled beds (CTB) and permanent beds (PB) with full and reduced irrigation regime. To determine the effects of the production system for each of the 48 genotypes [30 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties and 18 durum wheat (Triticum durum) varieties], crop development was assessed by the percentage of crop coverage by foliage using digital photos, by NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) measurements obtained by using the GreenSeeker ™ sensor, by calculations of the gravimetric-volumetric soil moisture content and lastly by grain yield estimations. We found a significant GxT interaction for tillage and irrigation environments for both bread wheat and durum wheat. The average yield for bread and durum wheat genotypes differed in various tillage practices and irrigation regimes. Six genotypes (3 bread wheat and 3 durum wheat) were selected using grain yield, percent ground cover by foliage and NDVI as criteria for further analysis. Genotypes 48 for bread wheat and genotype 31 for durum wheat have shown best adaptation in CTB with full irrigation presenting initial growth capacity and high NDVI values, which turned out in an advantage in crop performance. Genotype 13 and 27 bread and durum wheat resulted in good performance in PB with full irrigation with better development in the stages of flowering and grain filling. For reduced irrigation environments genotype 48 and 13 of bread wheat had better development in PB, recording high rates of coverage and NDVI. It is important to analyze the genotypes through cycles to specifically attribute those characteristics that are influencing a better adaptation to the plant development and thereby affecting grain yield.

Mots clés : Interacción. Genotipo. Práctica de labranza. Porcentaje de cobertura. NDVI. Interaction. Genotype. Tillage practice. Percent cover. Hidrociencias

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Page publiée le 16 juin 2015, mise à jour le 27 décembre 2019