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Accueil du site → Master → Mexique → Maestría → Variables del hábitat de la hormiga escamolera (Liometopum apiculatum) en el municipio de Charcas, san Luis Potosí, México

Colegio de Postgraduados (COLPOS) Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) 2013

Variables del hábitat de la hormiga escamolera (Liometopum apiculatum) en el municipio de Charcas, san Luis Potosí, México

Cruz Labana, José Domingo

Titre : Variables del hábitat de la hormiga escamolera (Liometopum apiculatum) en el municipio de Charcas, san Luis Potosí, México

HABITAT VARIABLES OF THE "ESCAMOLERA" ANT (Liometopum apiculatum) IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF CHARCAS, SAN LUIS POTOSI, MEXICO

Auteur : Cruz Labana, José Domingo.

Etablissement de soutenance : Colegio de Postgraduados (COLPOS) Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)

Grade : Maestría 2013

Résumé
In the rural areas of Mexico, the native “escamolera” ant (Liometopum apiculatum) is socioeconomically important because its larvae, known as "escamoles" (immature stages of the reproductive caste) are extracted from ant nests and sold for human consumption. The escamolera ant is being exploited unsustainably, and studies of habitat of this species in central Mexico are nonexistent. During spring-summer 2012, we evaluated fourteen habitat variables in 20-m-diameter circular plots in 54 ant nests and at 162 randomly selected plots ; identify habitat use by the ant, and estimated the density of nests at sites representing three levels of ecosystem disturbance. We also during February-2012 and March-2013 recorded temperature and relative humidity in ant nests and at the environment with automatic sensors. The variables that best described the presence of the ant were the width of the agave pineapple, percentage of agaves infested with scale insects, woody plant-cacti-agave density, soil cover and the slope of the terrain. The probability of finding nests increased (odds ratio> 1) when the width of the agave pineapple and the percentage of agaves with plague increased. In contrast, the probability decreased (odds ratio< 1) when the slope of the terrain and bare soil increased. Habitat use of the ant was not influenced by the variables vegetation type, slope and elevation of the terrain according to their availability. The ant selected (p<0.05) flat terrain (0-10% slope) and southwest-facing slopes. On the other hand, the ant avoided xerophytic shrub habitats, moderately flat terrain (11-20% slope), southeast-facing slopes and terrain of the lowest available elevation (1940-2050 m). Soil cover at nests was composed of grasses (27.5%), bare soil (24.5%), rock (20.2%), herbs (20.2%) and shrubs (7.6%). The nest density was higher ( = 0.05) in the moderate level of disturbance (11.9 nests ha-1). Temperature (p<0.0001) in ant nests was higher in the spring (22.0oC) and the relative humidity in summer (96.8%). The annual average temperature and relative humidity was 21.0 ° C and 90.0%, respectively. Temperature was not statistically different considering the altitude and the temperature of the environment.

Mots clés : Agave. Zonas áridas. Insectos. Gestión. Utilización. Arid areas. Insects. Management. Utilization. Ganadería.

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Page publiée le 20 mai 2015, mise à jour le 21 juillet 2017