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Colegio de Postgraduados (COLPOS) Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) 2008

Consecuencias de la agricultura de conservación en la eficiencia del uso de agua bajo condiciones de riego

Kienle, Fabian

Titre : Consecuencias de la agricultura de conservación en la eficiencia del uso de agua bajo condiciones de riego

Auteur : Kienle, Fabian

Etablissement de soutenance : Colegio de Postgraduados (COLPOS) Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)

Grade : Maestría 2008

Résumé
This investigation was realized in a long term trial established in 1992 to evaluate different tillage and straw management of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) in the experimental station of the Northwestern Agricultural Investigation Centre (Centro de Investigaciones Agrícola del Noroeste, CIANO) near Ciudad Obregón, in Sonora, Mexico, in 2008. Five different agricultural systems were evaluated in respect of the water use efficiency (WUE) in wheat under furrow irrigation. The five systems were conventional beds (CTB) with incorporation of crop residue and permanent beds (PB) with four residue managements (burning of straw, straw removal, partial and full straw retention). The soil type at CIANO station is a coarse sandy clay (Vertisol). The climate is subtropical arid. To evaluate WUE measurements of crop, soil and irrigation were taken. Of crop development the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and crop ground cover were measured. Mulch ground cover, soil resilience, cracking, time-to-pond, penetration resistance and soli moisture were measured to evaluate soil quality. To evaluate irrigation a method to measure irrigation on experimental plot level was developed consisting in the measurement of inflow, outflow and advance-rate. Irrigation water had a higher advance rate in systems without straw retention than in PB with straw retention. The infiltration of water was higher in PB with straw retention than in PB with straw burned and CTB. In PB with straw retention the initial crop development was delayed in comparison to CTB, but in total CTB had a longer time of photosynthetic activity. Straw retaining systems have a higher direct infiltration (time to pond) than other systems. Penetration resistance was the highest in PB with burning of residue. Tillage decreased the penetration resistance in the top layer in comparison with PB, while the distribution of penetration resistance was the most uniform throughout the profile in permanent beds with residue retention. Soil self-mulching capacity was the lowest in permanent beds with residue burning. The surface of cracks was higher in PB with residue retention than in PB with burning of residue and CB. Inflow and advanced measurement as well as outflow measurement with an adaption of a v-notch weir resulted adapted for irrigation evaluation at experimental plot level. The irrigation water advanced faster in systems without mulch cover. The infiltration of irrigation water was higher (but not significantly) in PB with residue retention than in PB with residue burning and conventional beds. The system of burning straw is a practice which reduces permeability of the surface soil. The systems of agricultural managements with total or partly straw retention contribute to a better water use efficiency.

Mots clés : Agricultura de conservación Calidad de suelo Vertedor de cresta triangular Riego por surcos Maestría Hidrociencias Conservation agriculture Soil quality V-notch weir Furrow-irrigation

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Page publiée le 10 mai 2015, mise à jour le 7 février 2023