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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Mexique → Fenología, productividad de calidad de fruto con y sin semilla en Opuntia ficus-indica

Colegio de Postgraduados (COLPOS) Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) 2009

Fenología, productividad de calidad de fruto con y sin semilla en Opuntia ficus-indica

Hernández Ramírez, Carlos

Titre : Fenología, productividad de calidad de fruto con y sin semilla en Opuntia ficus-indica

Auteur : Hernández Ramírez, Carlos

Etablissement de soutenance : Colegio de Postgraduados (COLPOS) Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)

Grade : Doctorado en Ciencias, especialista en Fisiología Vegetal 2009

Résumé
The cactus pear is an important productive alternative for arid and semiarid regions of Mexico. The cultivated area is 53 212 ha under irrigation and rainfall conditions. One problem facing the producer is the seasonality of fruit production and the presence of seeds in the pulp. Mexican researchers have gained important achievements in the production of seedless prickly pear in Opuntia ficus-indica cv. CP-Aztec with red- fleshed fruits, also used in this research comprising three subjects which are presented as three chapters. The objectives and results of this study were : I) Characterize the timing of reproductive bud break, anthesis and fruit ripening ; to determine the thermal requirements for the last two stages, and to analyze the behavior of flower opening and closing. A completely randomized experimental design was used with watering and rainfall as treatments. The number of days required from bud break to anthesis was different for early and late bud emergence dates, but the growing degree days requirement was similar. The flowers opened and closed one, two or three days. Relative humidity and soil water content did not affect the number of days of floral opening and closing ; II) To compare the quality of seedless and seeded fruits. The experimental unit consisted of two plants and ten replications. A randomized complete block experimental design was used. With the induction of parthenocarpy fruits with no seeds were obtained ; its size, weight and fiber content was significantly lower, but its density and ratio of peel/pulp was higher. The pulp in relation to total soluble solids, acidity, total sugars and reducing sugars, ascorbic acid and caloric content was similar to seed-bearing fruits ; III) To Evaluate the efficiency of Opuntia ficus-índica cv. CP-Azteca in the use of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and water in the synthesis of biomass under irrigation and rainfall conditions. A randomized complete block experimental design was used with twenty replications. The experimental unit consisted of one plant. The PAR use efficiency was higher under irrigation (1.94 %) as compared to rainfall conditions (1.27 %), but the water use efficiency was higher under rainfall conditions (1.49 kg (MS) t- 1 (water)) than in irrigation (1.08 kg (MS) t-1(water)).

Mots clés : Opuntia ficus-índica ; Antesis ; Grados día de desarrollo ; Fruto partenocárpico ; Radiación fotosintéticamente activa ; Uso eficiente del agua ; Doctorado ; Fisiología Vegetal ; Anthesis ; Growing degree days ; Parthenocarpic fruit ; Photosynthetic active radiation ; Water use efficiency.

Présentation

Page publiée le 20 janvier 2015, mise à jour le 20 juillet 2017