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Colegio de Postgraduados (COLPOS) Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) 2011

Aislamiento y evaluación del potencial biofertilizante de bacterias aplicables en el desarrollo agrícola sostenible en Chihuahua

Hernández Flores, Lina

Titre : Aislamiento y evaluación del potencial biofertilizante de bacterias aplicables en el desarrollo agrícola sostenible en Chihuahua

EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL BIOFERTILIZER OF APPLICABLE BACTERIA IN THE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN CHIHUAHUA

Auteur : Hernández Flores, Lina

Etablissement de soutenance : Colegio de Postgraduados (COLPOS) Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)

Grade : Doctorado en Ciencias, especialista en Estrategias para el Desarrollo Agrícola Regional 2011

Résumé
The ecological impact is important in productive systems and the use of environmental friendly products is elemental to preserve and to keep natural resources. Hence application of biotechnologies, as the use of beneficial microorganisms, allows partial or total replacement of nitrogen fertilization. Then the suitable selection of microorganisms to apply as biofertilizers to different cultures under particular edafic and environmental conditions becomes very important. The interest in developing a research about these bacteria is the possibility to use them more efficiently in agriculture. Thus, bacterial strains from nodules and from cultivated soil with the most economically important cultures for Mennonites and Mormons communities were isolated, this from three localities of Chihuahua (Delicias, Ojinaga and Casas Grandes). So, 31strains were isolated, purified and preliminary identified by macroscopic and microscopic morphology. Characterization was achieved with analysis of morphologic and physiological properties (growth in media with pH of 4.0, 5.5, 6.8 and 8.0 ; concentration of NaCl of 0.01, 0.51 y 0.85 moles/L temperature of incubation at32and 42ºC) and partial sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. Strains showed capability of adaptation to culture conditions and diversity in nodulation and acetylene reduction rates. In general, strains obtained from Delicias, Ojinaga and Casas Grandes showed great capacity of adaptation to growth when incubated at high temperatures, in media with different pH values and resistance to high concentrations of salts (NaCl). Strain LMS485 highlighted since it showed better growth under high temperatures and extreme pH values ; whereas strain LMS479 showed better resistance to high concentrations of NaCl in culture media. A FODA analysis was developed and the requirements of a feasible strategy for diminishing the application of chemical fertilizer were established. In this context, the use of bacteria as biofertilizers should be tested as an economic tool to confront the existing problems in the localities in study

Mots clés : Agricultura sustentable. Biofertilizantes. Nódulos. Rhizobia. Suelo. Sustainable agriculture. Biofertilizante. Nodules. Rhizobia. Soil. EDAR. Estrategias para el Desarrollo Agrícola Regional

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Page publiée le 19 janvier 2015, mise à jour le 27 décembre 2019