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Universidad de Buenos Aires (1997)

Factores que determinan el régimen de la precipitación en Argentina subtropical

Gonzalez, Marcela Hebe

Titre : Factores que determinan el régimen de la precipitación en Argentina subtropical

Auteur : Gonzalez, Marcela Hebe

Université de soutenance : Universidad de Buenos Aires

Grade : Doctor en Ciencias de la Atmósfera 1997

Résumé
The isotopic content in water precipitation (tritium, deuterium and oxygen- 18) was studied to determinate the possible origin of water vapor which generates rainfall in subtropical Argentina and the results showed that a great proportion of the water vapor comes from continental regions, specially from the tropics. There is some evidence about the influence of water vapor content over tropical South America on subtropical Argentina rainfall and so the behavior of ’rainfall in subtropical Argentina and the onset of Summer monsoon convection over South America in Spring were studied. Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) measurements obtained from the scanning radiometer aboard the polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, averaged on a 2.5º latitude-longitude array in the tropical region and averaged on five days, and rainfall measurements of 32 selected Argentine stations, accumulated during 10 days for the period 1975-91, were used to perform this study. The mean annual cycle of the rainfall has a minimum all over the region. It is very pronunciated in the northwester part and less defined in the east of the country. The mean rainfall has been analyzed using principal component analysis. The first eigenvector explains the 59% of the variance and it has little variability during the year and the second, explaining the 19% of the variance, represents the Summer rainfall with maximum variability in the northwest part of the country. The same methodology has been used to analyze the mean annual cycle of OLR in the tropics. The first eigenvector explains the 42% of the variance and is associated to the mean field and the second explains the 29% of the variance and represents the zonal displacement of the intertropical convection zone (ITCZ) during the year. An approach of a climatological date of the end of the Winter drought was determined in each one of the stations. It has a great agronomic value because generally at the end of Winter the soil is depleted of water and rainfall is essential for the seeding to grow. In order to study how the onset of Summer monsoon could influence the beginning of rainfall, some analysis have been done in September. The relation between OLR and rainfall anomalies in Spring, when the ITCZ enters the Southern Hemisphere, was studied. Negative and highly significative correlation was obtained in September, even though the OLR data were considered 10 and 20 days before the rainfall ones. High and positive correlation was found between the tropical area with OLR values less than 220 w/m2, as a measurement of the convective area, and the rainfall in September in central and northern regions of Argentina, specially when the OLR fields were advanced 20 days from the rainfall ones. This variable was also correlated with the onset monsoon date anomaly averaged in the area between 0º and 15ºS and between 45º and 75ºW and good results were obtained. A later analysis of the years when the convection was advanced from the climatological value, exhibited positive rainfall anomalies in the central and eastern regions of Argentina and an advanced date of the end of the Winter drought and years when the convection was delayed, showed the opposite behavior.

Mots clés : LLUVIA ; RADIACION DE ONDA LARGA ; CONVECCION ; CAMPOS MEDIOS ; VARIABILIDAD INTERANUAL ; ANOMALIAS ; CORRELACION ; SEQUIA INVERNAL ; ISOTOPOS ; RAINFALL ; LONGWAVE RADIATION ; CONVECTION ; ANNUAL CYCLE ; INTERANNUAL VARIABILITY ; ANOMALIES ; WINTER DROUGHT ; ISOTOPES

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Page publiée le 22 janvier 2015, mise à jour le 3 juillet 2017