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Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (2011)

Aprovechamiento, manejo y valoración de plantas de importancia económica en zonas áridas y semiáridas de México

Gómez Lorence, Federico

Titre : Aprovechamiento, manejo y valoración de plantas de importancia económica en zonas áridas y semiáridas de México

Auteur : Gómez Lorence, Federico

Université de soutenance : Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Grade : Doctor en Ciencias Biológicas 2011

Résumé
Arid and semiarid areas are spread across more than -fty percent of the Mexican territory and are characterized by erratic rainfall and extreme temperatures. Even though their main problem is the shortage of water, they maintain a plant diversity with more than 6000 species. This di- versity allows their residents to count on a variety of plants adapted for thousands of years to the drastic conditions imposed by this aridity. Using diverse techniques and methods of ex- ploitation and management of natural resources, farmers in these regions have learned to get different products, that in turn can be commercialized as raw materials in regional, national or export markets. Some of them are industrialized, therefore having an added value ; but most of the pro-ts bene-t mainly the industry and does little for those doing the heavy work in the -eld. The purpose of this study was to describe the techniques of exploitation, management and in- dustrialization of plants of economic importance as candelilla, lechuguilla, agaves, cactus pears, and mesquite in some regions that were considered most representative of the arid zones of Me- xico. We conducted a broad consultation of literature as well as -eld work through much of the country. The latter was done in order to gather information directly from farmers, industrial far- mers and other bene-ciaries of these resources. Also an extensive documentation was achieved for selected plants. Our -eld work was complemented by visits to laboratories, experimental or -rst stage industrial facilities, small, medium and large industries with the sole objetive of understanding and describing the industrial process. The study conducted over twenty years yielded information on the evolution of the technology used in industrial processes. Almost every researched instance has had a signi-cant exploitation and in some cases, industries have obtained QA certi-cation. It was concluded that the demand has been maintained or increased for most commodities and processed products in arid and semiarid regions of Mexico, with the exception of the candelilla wax and ixtle of lechuguilla which have had signi-cant production uctuations from 1998 to 2007. In particular, some of these products are : agave-based fermented and distilled beverages, non-wood as cactus pears and pitayos and mesquite wood products There is a need to integrate environmental assessment, ethnobotany, technological know-how and social sciences. Also there is the need of increasing the technology transfer and the promo- tion of new production chains for improving economic returns and achieve a more equitable distribution of income for all those involved in the exploitation, management, and industriali- zation of raw materials and products from plants of economic importance in Mexico. All these will ensure a sustainable management of natural resources, particularly of the plants studied, reverse and stop deserti-cation, and contribute to job creation, reducing migration from rural to urban environments

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Page publiée le 8 février 2015, mise à jour le 7 janvier 2020