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Universidade Federal de Lavras (2013)

Caracterização de cultivares de mandioca do Semi-Árido Mineiro em quatro épocas de colheita

Couto, Elizandra Milagre

Titre : Caracterização de cultivares de mandioca do Semi-Árido Mineiro em quatro épocas de colheita

Auteur : Couto, Elizandra Milagre

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal de Lavras

Grade : Doutorado em Ciência dos Alimentos 2013

Résumé
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is a staple food of the Tropics, its being one of the most important carbohydrate sources, employed in human, animal feeding and in the processing industry by about 500 million of persons all over the world. It is crop of huge importance to the semi-arid region of Minas Gerais as both a food and as an outstanding source of income, in the production of table cassava whether as an in natura product or cooked or in the production of starch or flour. The objective of this work was to evaluate physical, chemical, nutritional, technological and sensorial parameters of cassava roots at different harvest times (11, 14, 17 and 20 months after planting) aiming to select the most adequate for each time in the municipality of Perímetro Irrigado de Jaíba – MG as for the following parameters : moisture, cooking time, starch, total carotenoids, vitamin C, total sugars, total soluble solids (SST), hydrocyanic acid (HCN), total titratable acidity, pH, polyphenol oxidase (PFO), peroxidase (PER) and sensorial analysis at four harvest times. The HCN content is quite below the safety limit for cassava consumption which is of 100 mg of eq. HCN kg-1 of raw pulp of roots, making the consumption of these cultivars by the population safe. The lowest values are presented by cultivars IAC 127 and Paulistinha at the second harvest. In relation to the starch and SST, these ones present elevated contents at the harvest times, cultivar Abacate being the one which presents highest starch content in the whole matter at the fourth harvest and cultivars 347, 356, Cidade Rica and 361 present the roots with the highest contents of SST at the first harvest, contributing this way to the increased yield of the roots both in the consumption of the cooked cassava and in the production of starch and flour. The roots present significant values of vitamin C and total carotenoids. The highest values of vitamin C are represented by cultivars 12818, Mico, 356, Abacate, Dourada, 266, Prato Cheio, IAC 1418 and Olho Roxo Local at the third harvest. The greatest total carotenoid contents occur at the second harvest, their being represented by cultivar Engana Ladrão. The cooking time of the cassava roots is shorter than 15 minutes, this time being considered optimal both for the consumer and for the industry. The shortest cooking time occurs in the second harvest for cultivars 347, 141, Abacate, Olho Roxo, Paulistinha, IAC 1418, 118 and Olho Roxo Local and in the fourth harvest the shortest cooking time was for cultivar Abacate. The contents of starch and SST were high as well as those of vitamin C and total carotenoids, the cooking time and acidity were low, which improves the sensorial quality

Mots clés : Manihot esculenta Crantz Amido Ácido cianídrico Tempo de cozimento Starch Cianidric acid Cooking time

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Page publiée le 26 janvier 2015, mise à jour le 5 juillet 2017