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UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS (2012)

Estudio botánico y cultivo de Jaltomata Bicolor (R.& P.) Mione & M.Nee “Huallaco” (solanaceae) en el distrito de Arahuay, Canta- Lima

Espinoza Badajoz

Titre : Estudio botánico y cultivo de Jaltomata Bicolor (R.& P.) Mione & M.Nee “Huallaco” (solanaceae) en el distrito de Arahuay, Canta- Lima

Auteur : Espinoza Badajoz

Université de soutenance : UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS

Grade : Doctor en Ciencias Biológicas 2012

Résumé
Jaltomata bicolor "huallaco" plant of the Solanaceae family, cultivated for 5 years in community Mataruyo Cup Arahuay district, at 2450 meters altitude distribution which is the lowest level of its native plant endemic to the western flank of the Andes (valleys of the Rimac, Chillon and Pativilca). The plant subarbustiva 0,80 – 1,95 m high, axonomorfa root, stem cylindrical 0,7 to 2,3 cm in diameter, 4 to 5 aristate at the apex, with numerous lenticels and branched from the base. Leaves alternate ovate lanceolate 5 to 12 cm long, apex acuminate, edge and base subdentado asymmetric. Flowers arranged in cymes nutantes, stalked 2 – 5 (-7) flowers per inflorescence. Spherical berry fruit compressed at the poles of 10-24 mm in diameter. Anatomical study demonstrated in the secondary structure of the root ideoblastos the presence of grit crystaliferous. On the surface were recognized cauline papillose epidermal cells and multicellular branched trichomes. Bifacial leaf structure with drusen, with multicellular trichomes conical, glandular and branched. The cultivation of the species began germinating seeds of wild plants in the laboratory. The seedlings were transferred to Mataruyo for acclimatization in the shed and then to cropland. The average production of flowers and fruits recorded in four periods of flowering-fruiting during the years 2003-2007 was 650 flowers and 445 fruits. The nutritional value of fruits is evidenced by the presence of Vitamin "A" and "C". Vegetative propagation by cuttings produced better results in the rooting of the plant with indole butyric acid treatment and banding. In cuttings the results were positive both with and without treatment. Rooted-layers without treatment. Vegetative propagation by cuttings and layering were positive by rooting occurred. However for propagation by cuttings requires treatment with IBA for rooting and girdling of the plant. The population has never grown the plant according to ethnobotanical studies, however the people associated with the conditions of growth of wild plants "huallaco" with the production of potato crop in the area. J. bicolor is a critically endangered plant, due to the drought in the study area (171,4 to 334 mm) and be exposed to be consumed by livestock (young stem, leaves) and fruits are very sought after by birds and man.

Mots clés : Solanáceas - Perú - Arahuay (Lima : Distrito)

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