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Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (2010)

Caracterización molecular inter e intra genotípica de 16 accesiones de Chenopodium quinoa (quinua) mediante la técnica de ISSR

Tamayo Contreras, Héctor Luis

Titre : Caracterización molecular inter e intra genotípica de 16 accesiones de Chenopodium quinoa (quinua) mediante la técnica de ISSR

Auteur : Tamayo Contreras, Héctor Luis

Université de soutenance : Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina

Grade : Maestría Mejoramiento Genetico de Plantas 2010

Résumé
Quinoa is one of the most ancient crops of the Andean culture. This crop was relegated for more than 500 years, compared to other native grains such as kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus) and Cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule). Actually, quinoa has more importance due to its high agronomic, nutritious and international trading value. Quinoa is used as both, for human food and feed due to the high aminoacids content which are not present in other cereals. Quinoa crop has a broad wide diversity represented as cropping and wild genotypes growing around Titicaca Lake. Genetic diversity is expressed by different colors of the panicle, leaves, plant height, saponine content, type of panicle and grain quality. Quinoa is a specie with broad adaptation to agroecologic zones, with genotypes tolerant to drought, frost, salt, high food quality, and high yield potential. The employment of modern biotechnology allows the genetic characterization for the development improved cultivars, for example ISSR markers of DNA is a tool for differentiation of genotypes. ISSR technique brings high levels of polymorphism, which are reproducibles and useful for the identification of intragenotype and intergenotype variation in many crops. In the current work Sixteen accessions were used for intergenotype characterization and 5 individuals from each accession for intragenotype characterization. A total of 10 primers generated 90 polymorphic bands between 400 and 3500pb, all fragments were scored and issued with a numeric value of 1 for presence and 0 for absence of bands. A binary matrix was constructed by the NTSYS software v2.1 using the Jaccard similarity coefficient, the dendogram was constructed using el UPGMA average linkage method. Accessions were distributed in 3 groups at the level of similarity coefficient of 0.79. The group 1 included 12 accessions : from Puno (5), Cusco (3), Cajamarca (3) and Arequipa (1) ; group 2 included 2 accessions from Ancash and group 3 included 2 accessions from Puno and Arequipa. The polymorphism generated by the ISSR markers showed different levels of genetic relationship between the 16 accessions. In conclusion low level of intragenotype variation was found in the accessions from Cajamarca (1), Arequipa (1), Ancash (2), Puno (2) and Cusco (3) ; and high intragenotype variation in accessions Cusco (2), Puno (2) and Arequipa (2), showing more variability among accessions from southern part of Peruvian highland

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