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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Inde → 2004 → Characterization of Drought under Different Agro-climatic Zones of Maharashtra

Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology (2004)

Characterization of Drought under Different Agro-climatic Zones of Maharashtra

Satpute, Gajanan Uddhawrao

Titre : Characterization of Drought under Different Agro-climatic Zones of Maharashtra

Auteur  : Satpute, Gajanan Uddhawrao

Université de soutenance : Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2004

Résumé présenté dans KrishiPrabha (Indian Agricultural Doctoral Dissertations Repository)

Study of drought characterization is one of the most important aspects in the rainfed farming as well as in any water resource planning, management and allocation of irrigation water. The present study was undertaken to characterize drought in different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra, by estimating dry spells and water deficits, determining suitable frequency distributions for extreme weekly water deficit, developing and validating appropriate stochastic models, studying drought spread using geostatistical modelling and suggesting suitable crop planning. Weekly meteorological data (1976-2002) and soil data were collected from six agro-climatic stations, namely Kolhapur, Pune, Solapur, Akola, Nagpur and Sindewahi. Meteorological and soil data were also collected from 12 other stations in the state for geostatistical analysis.

Weekly rainfall data were analysed for onset and withdrawal of rainy season and determination of dry spells. Weekly reference evapotranspiration and water balance components were determined. Annual, seasonal and weekly rainfall analysis of different agro-climatic zones indicated that the coefficient of variation at Solapur is highest, signifying extremely erratic rainfall distribution compared to other stations. Effective monsoon onsets from 24th to 25th week and terminates from 41st to 43rd week in different agro-climatic zones of state. Dry spell analysis indicated that mid season droughts are likely to occur with 25 to 50 per cent probability at Pune and Solapur. The possibility of late season droughts during maturity period are high (> 50 % probability) at Kolhapur, Pune, Solapur and Akola while low (25 to 50 % probability) at Nagpur and Sindewahi.

Moisture status under normal condition is sufficient for satisfactory growth of rainfed crops in all the zones except at Solapur. Drought evaluation study indicated a frequency of one drought year in every two years. Drought analysis also indicated that different types of droughts of varying durations prevail simultaneously in different agro-climatic zones. Frequency analysis of weekly maximum water deficit during crop growing season indicated that log Pearson type-III is the best probability distribution at all the stations except Akola where Weibull (maxima) fits well.

Developed stochastic models are found to be adequate for forecasting the weekly water deficit for two years ahead (2001 and 2002) as seen from the highly significant values of correlation coefficient between observed and generated series. Spatial and temporal variability of water deficit during 1986 drought year using geostatistical modelling technique, indicated that the occurrence and spread of drought has a tendency to originate in the water deficit region, spreads in the direction of similar deficient regions and then dissipates.

Mono-cropping as well as double cropping systems are possible in all the agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra, mainly due to presence of heavy soils. Short duration rainfed kharif crops can be successfully grown in different zones. Long duration kharif crops experience water stress for short period during their critical growth stages. However, sustainable production can be maintained by providing protective irrigation through harvesting of surplus water during rainy season

KrishiPrabha (Indian Agricultural Doctoral Dissertations Repository)

Page publiée le 27 janvier 2015, mise à jour le 1er février 2021