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Université de Montréal (2004)

Les migrations féminines du milieu rural vers le milieu urbain au Burkina Faso : faits, causes et implications

Le Jeune, Gael

Titre : Les migrations féminines du milieu rural vers le milieu urbain au Burkina Faso : faits, causes et implications

Auteur : Le Jeune, Gael

Grade : Doctorat 2004

Université de soutenance : Université de Montréal (Canada)

Résumé
Recently, the research community has shown special interest in female rural-urban migration in West Africa. These massive migrations should ensure women access to new opportunities and improve their status. In this dissertation, we first highlight the transformation of female migration patterns in Burkina Faso during the second half of the twentieth century. We demonstrate that women have developed more and more complex trajectories which motivate them to leave rural areas more frequently. Although foreign countries constitute the main target of female migrants, the appeal of international destinations is increasingly challenged by Burkinabe urban areas. The motives of rural out-migration remain essentially marriage or following husbands but we observe an intensification of single female migration toward urban areas for studies, work or family reasons. We then attempt to verify the link often assumed between such transformations and the emergence of an autonomous female migration in Burkina Faso. "’Autonomous’" migration is a migration that aims to fulfill individual economic objectives. We find that autonomous migration only partially explains the intensification of single female rural-urban migration. Finally, we focus on the implications of migration toward urban areas for the professional trajectory of rural women. We find that this type of migration promotes an access to paid work but does not guarantee financial autonomy. In fact, women who migrate to town for reasons of marriage context remain marginalized in the labour market due to asymmetrical exchange between spouses while single migrant women suffer from the urban employment crisis. Our results are based on innovative quantitative and qualitative data. These data include, on one hand, biographical data collected in 2000 during the national survey "Dynamique migratoire, insertion urbaine et environnement au Burkina Faso"—to which we have actively contributed from design to achievement—and, on the other hand, in-depth interviews with twenty women, mostly rural migrants, conducted in 2001 at Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso.

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