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Accueil du site → Doctorat → États-Unis → 2002 → Climate change and archaeological site distribution during the past four millennia in northern Jordan utilizing oxygen isotope analysis of human tooth enamel and geographic information system

University of Arkansas (2002)

Climate change and archaeological site distribution during the past four millennia in northern Jordan utilizing oxygen isotope analysis of human tooth enamel and geographic information system

Alakkam, Abdulla Ahmed

Titre : Climate change and archaeological site distribution during the past four millennia in northern Jordan utilizing oxygen isotope analysis of human tooth enamel and geographic information system

Auteur : Alakkam, Abdulla Ahmed

Université de soutenance : University of Arkansas

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2002

Résumé
The enamels of one hundred and ninety two teeth were analyzed for their oxygen isotopic composition from five archaeological sites in northern Jordan (Ya’amoun, Pella, Yasieleh, Sa’ad and Waqqas) to reconstruct the climate from the Middle Bronze Age II (1800-1500 BCE) to the Late Byzantine Period (491-640 CE). Results showed that the Middle Bronze Age II δ 18 O values were the highest indicating warmer and drier climate conditions. The Late Bronze Age II and the Iron Age I/II experienced more favorable climate conditions. The Early Byzantine period δ18 O values indicate wetter conditions compared to the Late Byzantine period but the latter was wetter than the Middle Bronze Age II. The geographic distribution of the archaeological sites in Jordan was affected by climate that changed over the prehistory of the country (from the Paleolithic to the Ottoman Period). Archaeological sites decreased in number during dry periods like the Middle Bronze Age II but increased during wet periods like the Roman one. Proximity to water sources was favored during the various cultural periods, where the northwestern and the mid-western areas witnessed dense occupation. On the other hand, areas that presently receive less than 200mm annual rainfall were not favored even during the wet periods. There were major climate events that overran the whole Mediterranean region during the Holocene, where Jordan was subject to them as well. These climatic events (prolonged droughts and/or insufficient precipitation) were identified using Bryson’s archaeoclimate model that simulates the amount of precipitation, evapotranspiration and temperature during the last 12,000 years. These climate events coincided with the collapse of many societies in the Levant, such as the Middle Bronze Age societies of Mesopotamian cities.

Mots clés : Oxygen isotope, Geographic information system, Jordan, Applied sciences, Climate change, Remote sensing, Archaeology, Tooth enamel, Social sciences, Archaeological site

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Page publiée le 1er mars 2015, mise à jour le 1er novembre 2018