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McGill University (1999)

Effect of chemical composition on saline water evaporation

Mao, Yasin Sufi

Titre : Effect of chemical composition on saline water evaporation

Auteur : Mao, Yasin Sufi

Université de soutenance : McGill University

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 1999

The purpose of this work was to investigate the evaporation rates of various brines and to compare them to the evaporation rates of pure water under the same environmental conditions in the laboratory. NaCl, MgCl 2 and KCl were the salts used in the experiments, at three densities. Mixtures of the salts were also used. One set of experiments was conducted under free convection while the other was conducted under forced convection, both over pans. Temperature was relatively constant for the experiments but relative humidity was not controlled. Wind profiles were measured during the forced convection experiments and an aerodynamic equation used to calculate evaporation for comparison with the observed evaporation rates. Surface temperatures were also measured. Water activities of all the brine and brine mixtures were also measured and compared to predictions by Raoult’s law. In general, it was found the evaporation rate of brines was lower than that of pure water and that the water activities and evaporation rates were density-dependent to a certain extent. More precisely, they were dependent on the actual constituents in the brine due to the different molecular weights, and the number of ions dissolving from a given weight of salt or salt mixture. Evaporation rates can better be estimated on this basis than on the basis of density alone, as one would expect from Raoult’s Law.

Mots clés : Saline waters. Evaporation. Evaporation (Meteorology)


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