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University of Reading (1998)

Tropical theileriosis (theileria annulata) in Morocco : epidemiological and economic investigations

Bouslikhane, Mohammed

Titre : Tropical theileriosis (theileria annulata) in Morocco : epidemiological and economic investigations.

Auteur : Bouslikhane, Mohammed

Université de soutenance : University of Reading

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 1998

Résumé
The main objective of the present study was to design an appropriate control strategy of tropical theileriosis, taking into account the epidemiology of theileriosis and its related social and economic aspects. The research programme consists of two studies with complementary aims. The first was a large scale epidemiological survey conducted in five main cattle areas of Morocco in an attempt to evaluate its importance and to identify factors to be considered in decision making. The second was a longitudinal study conducted in farms representing two farming systems in a Theileria-endemic region in order to assess the economic impact of theileriosis at farm level.The survey confirmed the endemic status of all areas and seroprevalence estimates ranged from 275 to 66%, increasing from sub-humid to arid bio-climatic substrata of the country. Seroreactors were present in 80% to 100% of sampled farms. Individual cattle characteristics and farming conditions did not explain the serological results. Nevertheless, exotic breeds were less represented in farms where favourable conditions for tick infestation occur.Overall annual incidence rates of new infections, clinical cases, and case-specific mortality in monitored farms were 46.7% , 3.35% and 0.92%, respectively. Thus, theileriosis is mainly subclinical, causing a daily weight loss of 0.104kg per infected animal. Productivity analysis has shown differences between the two livestock systems. In the absence of theileriosis, the indices of productivity would be 5% to 13% higher than in the observed situation.Vaccination using a Moroccan Theileria live vaccine strain associated with strategic tick control was recommended as a reliable control policy. Arguments for this choice and conditions for successful control were stated with regard to the epidemiological status of theileriosis and socio-economic aspects. The work generated questions to be answered by further research studies in order to develop an integrated control policy targeting all tick-borne diseases.

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