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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Belgique → Elaboration of a decision support system for land evaluation and land use planning in the region of Makenes (Morocco)

Ghent University (2002)

Elaboration of a decision support system for land evaluation and land use planning in the region of Makenes (Morocco)

El Kasmi, Hajib

Titre : Elaboration of a decision support system for land evaluation and land use planning in the region of Makenes (Morocco)

Auteur : El Kasmi, Hajib

Université de soutenance : Ghent University

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2002

Résumé
Morocco is a country of agriculture-based economy, and hence the call for sustainability management of its agroecosystems is becoming an urgent need. However, if sustainable land use is sought, scientists and land use planners are appealed to alleviate the gaps that exists between scientists’ methodologies and the decisionmakers’ practices. In narrowing such gaps, a need for adequate and easy to use land evaluation (LE) system to base LUP is felt. The present work aims to contribute to initiate the use of the sustainability and information technology (IT) concepts to serve the long-term sustainability research and practice in the region of Meknès in Morocco. To achieve this goal, the present work has been conducted with three major objectives : 1) to elaborate a framework integrating biophysical and socio-economic parameters into a unified LE model ; 2) to set up a LIS for the study area by collecting and organising spatial and tabular data ; and 3) to devise a computer-based DSS for LE and LUP in the region of Meknès : the Meknès-LUPDSS.
A model is set to be of four hierarchical levels of production potential : 1) the radiation production potential (RPP) ; 2) the water-limited production potential (WPP) ; 3) the natural production potential (NPP) ; and 4) the land production potential (LPP). From one level to another, a set of limitation factors reduces the crop production potential in multiplicative manner. To assess these potentials for a given crop, four known methodologies are conducted successively. The FAO-IIASA/AEZ methodology and the related land productivity concept is used for determining the RPP. The FAO crop water requirement procedures are used for assessing the WPP and the corresponding first level of yield gap (Ygap-I). The Sys-productivity parametric index is used to derive the NPP and the related second level of yield gap (YgapII). The third level of yield gap (Ygap-III), denoting the socio-economic yield gap, is approached using the concept of technical farming efficiency (TFE) with the stochastic frontier production function (SFPF).
The soil maps, providing the spatial extent of 50 soil units and three soil characteristics -texture, depth, stoninesswere digitised using the ARC/INFO® 7.1 and transferred to ArcView®3.1 to constitute the core soil spatial information in the Meknès-LIS. A computerised digital terrain model of the region of Meknès (Meknès-DTM) has been created by from topographic maps (1:50,000) using ARC/INFO® 7.1. The developed Meknès-LIS has been linked to the models and employed to build a simple and comprehensive computerised DSS. The computer application of the Meknès-LUPDSS is developed using the Visual Basic™ programming language to include 11 executable modules and 8 friendly-user interfaces by means of which the system can be operated and the obtained results displayed. The Meknès-LUPDSS presents to the end-user two possibilities in carrying out the crop productivity assessment ; a soil unit based and a map based assessment. In the latter, the assessment is carried out on the soil map using the Meknès-LIS and the related digital maps. By means of a set of SQL and Avenue® scripts, the digital maps are read into the Meknès-LUPDSS in a raster format of 1 ha resolution. The resulting spatial layers, relative to water and soil efficiency coefficients and water, natural and land production potentials, are saved back in the raster format within the ArcView® environment for further display and/or analysis processes.
The assessment of the effect of some socio-economic factors on the TFIE has permitted to conclude that the most efficient farmers are of a better level of literacy and interacting with their institutional environment services either for contracting financial loans, acquiring production input factors or marketing their produces. It can be recommended that narrowing the Ygap-IIIs in the region of Meknès may be achieved through : 1) devising a global strategy by means of integrated development programs to promote the optimality in input use ; 2) increasing the farmers’ literacy by setting up appropriate education programs ; and 3) minimising the farmers’ risk aversion to drought and enhancing their input purchasing power.
On the basis of the developed crop production potentials and the related yield gaps’ model, the Meknès-LUPDSS is devised. Its integrative aspect demonstrates the interesting capabilities that the end-user can acquire in operating LE and LUP in the region of Meknès. With this regard, the developed system is robust as it functions with the available data in the study area and provides, through its different components, interesting features in : 1) providing useful spatial information on land resources and crop characteristics ; 2) profiling the land productivity by simulating crops’ potentials and locating areas of land best suited to a particular crop ; 3) simulating the effect of different technological packages such as different sowing dates, different varieties… ; and 4) offering interesting prospects for crop yield forecasting and early warning

Présentation

Source (Résumé) : Pedon 14 - Physical Land Resources - Universiteit Gent

Page publiée le 8 février 2015, mise à jour le 25 novembre 2018