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Universite de Moncton (2011)

Variabilite climatique et impacts sur les ressources en eau au Burkina Faso : Etude de cas du bassin hydrographique du Fleuve Nakanbe

Thiombiano, Alida Nadege

Titre : Variabilite climatique et impacts sur les ressources en eau au Burkina Faso : Etude de cas du bassin hydrographique du Fleuve Nakanbe

Auteur : Thiombiano, Alida Nadège

Université de soutenance : Universite de Moncton

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2011

Résumé
In Burkina Faso, water resources are limited and their availability is irregular given the spatial and temporal variability of climatic factors in addition to the complexity of the hydrological network and the high population densities. Indeed, these resources are subject to many pressures and, being able to organize its management would provide equal opportunities of socio-economic development in the four major watersheds of Burkina Faso. Therefore, this study is focused on the watershed of the Nakanbé River, which is one of the main areas of concentration in terms of human dynamics but also economic and political representativeness. For this, the Nakanbé River watershed as experienced an accelerated degradation of its environment since the 1970s. Consequently, it became necessary and urgent to address the management of its water resources and propose sustainable solutions. This study initially consists to an analysis of climate data to understand and assess the dynamics trends in the historical evolution of parameters such rainfall, temperature and potential evapotranspiration. To do so, statistical analysis with simple comparison analysis, Mann-Kendall trend test and Sen’s method of slopes estimation have been used. On the other hand, a survey with the local residents helped to assess their perceptions of the local climate evolution with the induced effects, and the local dynamic of the water resources management. As results, the Mann-Kendall test detected at a significance level of α = 0.05, a downward yearly trends of rainfall and an higher yearly trends of temperature at Ouahigouya and Ouagadougou synoptic stations. In addition, the local population perceptions reflect a decline and irregular rainfall, an increase in heat and a reduction of cold months. Adaptation actions are then taken at national level arising from the new policy of water resources integrated management. Then, this research shall be an additional tool to assess the vulnerability of the Nakanbé River watershed to climate variability for sustainable management of its water resources. Key Words : Burkina Faso ; Nakanbé River ; Water ; Climate Variability-Change ; Perception

Mots clés : Water Resource Management, Physical geography, Earth sciences, Hydrologic sciences

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Page publiée le 12 février 2015, mise à jour le 6 février 2018