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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Norvège → La production des cereales a petits grains et des proteagineuses dans le Gourma au Mali

Norges Landbrukshogskole (1990)

La production des cereales a petits grains et des proteagineuses dans le Gourma au Mali

Aune, Jens Bernt

Titre : La production des cereales a petits grains et des proteagineuses dans le Gourma au Mali

Auteur : Aune, Jens Bernt

Université de soutenance : Norges Landbrukshogskole

Grade : Dr.Sc. 1990

Résumé
The research reported in this thesis was conducted during 1987 and 1988 in the Gourma-region of Mali. The annual rainfall at the locations where the trials were conducted varied between 145 and 294 mm. Most of the soils had a low level of available phosphorus and no fertilizer was applied. In the pearl millet variety trials, local varieties were tested against improved varieties with equal or earlier maturity. No significant differences in grain yield were found, but the earliest varieties had a low yield stability. This instability was primarily due to variation in the numbers of panicles/plant. In the cowpea variety trials, the varieties Suivida 2, Rouge, 58-57 et KVX 30-306-3G were found to be best adapted to this region. These varieties flower 51-55 days after sowing. In a tillage trial in 1987, yields were higher on ridges than in a zero-cultivation treatment. However, the tillage trials in 1988 showed no positive effect of cultivating on ridges, compared to the traditional cultivation methods. Sandstorms occur frequently in the region, which makes sowing on the flanks of the ridges warranted. The possibilities for an expansion of the traditional flood recession cropping system into new areas was examined. The soil factors limiting such an expansion are high density, low porosity, low pH, and low amounts of available phosphorous. Sorghum and cowpea were the species best adapted to this production system, while the performance of pigeonpea and especially of chickpea were poor. The wild fonio (Panicum laetum) is an annual grass. The grains are harvested for human consumption. A degradation of the fonio producing area has taken place and few seeds were found left in soils of degraded areas. Regeneration trials showed that a sowing followed by a houe cultivation facilitated the regeneration the most, but a houe cultivation without sowing gave almost as good results in areas that were not completely degradated.

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