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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Royaume-Uni → 1988 → Hydrogeology of the Makhmur Plain, Northern Iraq

University of London - University College London (1988)

Hydrogeology of the Makhmur Plain, Northern Iraq

Muhammad, K.I

Titre : Hydrogeology of the Makhmur Plain, Northern Iraq

Auteur : Muhammad, K.I

Université de soutenance : University of London - University College London

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 1988

The Makhmur Plain is triangular in shape, bordered by the Tigris and Lesser Zab rivers, and the Qara Chaugh mountain range, with a total surface area of about 2700 m2. The general hydrogeology of the Makhmur plain was studied including both aspects of quantity and quality of the water resources. The plain is underlain by the Upper Fars Formation of Upper Miocene age while the foothills to the east and northeast are underlain by the Lower Fars Formation of Middle Miocene age. The oldest formation is exposed in the core of the highest mountains in the area. Generally Qara Chaugh mountain represents the main recharge zone for the Makhmur basin in addition to direct precipitation on the plain. This study concentrates on the Upper Fars Formation since this formation represents the most extensive aquifer in the Makhmur plain. Climatically, the Makhmur area has hot, dry, windy summers and cold and mild winters with moderate rainfall exceeding 400 mm annually in the mountainous area. The flow of groundwater was studied from prepared water level maps and the hydraulic properties of the aquifers quantified from experimental field pumping tests at eight localities. Numerical analysis of pumping test data was also undertaken and was found to be a useful tool in confirming the aquifer characteristics of the Makhmur basin. The data collected in the field includes water level measurements, groundwater conductivity, pH, and representative water samples. More than one hundred and thirty three samples were analysed for major cation and anion constituents, together with some trace elements. The data from such samples together with previously available analyses allowed the quality of groundwater in the plain to be studied in detail. In general, groundwaters are of the sulphate water type, with some analyses showing high NO3,So4 and Fe concentrations, which present limitations for human needs, though the water would be useful for agricultural purposes. Water budget calculations for the area are somewhat doubtful owing to the lack of relevant data, further work is necessary including detailed collection and documentation of data. The area is currently in youthful stage of groundwater exploitation and use, though the development of the Makhmur plain points the need to test the effects of various management proposals in order to compare their operation. Therefore the numerical groundwater modelling technique was used to simulate the Upper Fars aquifer to allow predictive studies for estimation of future field behaviour. The finite difference mathematical model of Prickett and Lonquist (1971) proved a very successful tool in this respect.

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