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University of Durham (1990)

THE STABILIZATION OF AEOLIAN SAND DUNES

AHMED, NAIF BAKER

Titre : THE STABILIZATION OF AEOLIAN SAND DUNES

Auteur : AHMED, NAIF BAKER

Université de soutenance : University of Durham

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 1990

Résumé
Many attempts have been made to stabilize sand dune systems by means of mulching, fencing, establishment of vegetation cover etc. Whilst vegetation is the most effective long term agent, it is often difficult to establish because of erosion and exposure of the root system of the young plants. A possible solution is to use a temporary surface mulch which will hold the sand until the plants have become established. The chemical mulches were first tested in the laboratory on sand samples collected from the Druridge Bay coastal dune system (Northumberland). Following the laboratory tests a series of greenhouse trials were established in which Eucalyptus microtheca ; Acacia cyanophylla ; Ammophila arenaria and lyme grass tillers, and Panicum spp. ; Merlinda spp. ; Melion spp. and Ammophila arenaria seeds were planted and the sand surface then treated with polyvinyl alcohol 14,000 (PVA1) ; polyvinyl alcohol 125,000 (PVA2) ; polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG3) ; polyethylene glycol (PEG4) ; bitumen emulsion A1-55 (B.E.) ; Ferquatac emulsion RB-50 (F.E.) ; Vinamul 3270 (V1) ; Vinamul 3277 (V2) ; Vinamul 18207 (V3) ; Aquapol 35-0019 (Aq1) and Aquapol 35-0031 (Aq2). The resistance of the chemicals mulches to wind erosion was tested in a windtunnel. To water erosion it was tested by a rainfall simulator. The infiltration tests, temperature and seed germination trials were repeated in Iraq using samples from Baiji sand dunes. For these trials the following chemicals were used : Aq1, B.E., F.E. and PVA2. From the results of the various laboratory and greenhouse tests F.E., B.E. and Aq1 were selected for three field trials sites based on a Completely Randomized Block Design at Druridge Bay. Aq1, Aq2, B.E. and F.E. were found to be ideal stabilizers, they resisted both wind and water erosion, were non-toxic to plants and remained stable for long periods. The choice of which chemical to use is a combination of aesthetic and cost—Aq1, Aq2 and F.E. are colourless and thus from a public standpoint more acceptable than the black bitumen. The maximum chemical concentration that produced a permeable mulch on the Druridge Bay sand was not permeable on the Baiji sand

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