Informations et ressources scientifiques
sur le développement des zones arides et semi-arides

Accueil du site → Doctorat → États-Unis → 1982 → THE ETHNOARCHAEOLOGY OF SEDENTISM : MOBILITY STRATEGIES AND SITE STRUCTURE AMONG FORAGING AND FOOD PRODUCING POPULATIONS IN THE EASTERN KALAHARI DESERT, BOTSWANA

University of New Mexico (1982)

THE ETHNOARCHAEOLOGY OF SEDENTISM : MOBILITY STRATEGIES AND SITE STRUCTURE AMONG FORAGING AND FOOD PRODUCING POPULATIONS IN THE EASTERN KALAHARI DESERT, BOTSWANA

HITCHCOCK, ROBERT KARL

Titre : THE ETHNOARCHAEOLOGY OF SEDENTISM : MOBILITY STRATEGIES AND SITE STRUCTURE AMONG FORAGING AND FOOD PRODUCING POPULATIONS IN THE EASTERN KALAHARI DESERT, BOTSWANA

Auteur : HITCHCOCK, ROBERT KARL

Université de soutenance : University of New Mexico

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 1982

Résumé
Sedentism, the process whereby human groups reduce their mobility to the point where they remain residentially stationary year-round, is a subject that is receiving increasing attention in anthropology and archaeology. There is little agreement in the literature, however, as to the causes and consequences of sedentism. This dissertation is a comparative study of mobile and sedentary populations of Basarwa (Bushmen) in the eastern Kalahari Desert, Botswana which is designed to test some of the ideas about processes of mobility reduction. It is shown that mobility reduction among foraging Kua and Tyua populations in the eastern Kalahari has come about in the context of increasing demographic and economic pressures. Organizational responses to reduced mobility include a drop in group size, a reduction in annual range size, an increase in daily foraging trip distances, a broadening of the diet, and an intensification of labor. A crucial determinant of residential mobility in the eastern Kalahari is localized resource depletion which increases with longer site occupation duration. Data on work effort are presented which show that labor time increases as residential mobility is reduced. There is a change in the structure of labor as children are brought in to the work force and occupational specialization becomes more important. In the context of reduced mobility it becomes more costly to provide people with resources ; as a result, new means of buffering populations against resource variance are developed. More emphasis is placed on storage as a way of getting groups through annual periods of low productivity. Other responses to resource scarcity include exploitation of aquatic resources and increased dependence upon food production and long-distance trade. Changes in mobility patterning, labor organization, and subsistence strategies have implications for archaeological site structure. These implications are explored with reference to ethnoarchaeological data on residential and special purpose sites of eastern Kalahari groups. It is demonstrated that reduced residential mobility has led to an increase in the number of site types in the settlement system. Intrasite spatial organization has become more complex as site maintenance investment has increased and activity areas have begun to be differentiated. It is apparent from the analysis that mobility is an important behavioral dimension which affects patterning in the archaeological record.

Présentation (WorldCat)

Search Oxford Libraries On Line (SOLO)

ProQuest Dissertations Publishing

Page publiée le 7 avril 2015, mise à jour le 12 décembre 2018