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Oregon State University (2013)

An evaluation of a water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) program for rural communities in northern Afghanistan

Costello, Denise H.

Titre : An evaluation of a water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) program for rural communities in northern Afghanistan

Auteur : Costello, Denise H.

Université de soutenance : Oregon State University

Grade : MS, Geography, 2013

Résumé partiel
The Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) sector of international development works to increase access to sustainable, safe water and improved sanitation. Currently, at least 780 million people live without clean drinking water and 2.5 billion without access to improved sanitation (UNICEF & World Health Organization, 2012). Lack of access to these human rights is a major cause of diarrheal disease, which annually kills nearly 760,000 children under the age of five. Many institutions, including the United Nations (UN), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and local governments are working to resolve this inequality by increasing safe water access, providing sanitation facilities, and improving knowledge and practice of healthy hygiene behaviors. Implementing agencies often self-monitor their efforts and, due to funding challenges, only through the life of the project. This study attempts to evaluate the longer-term effectiveness of an NGO’s WASH program in Balkh Province, Afghanistan by investigating five questions, post program 1) was access to safe drinking water improved ; 2) how is the spatial distribution of households relative to water sources related to safety of stored drinking water ; 3) was there an increase in WASH knowledge ; 4) was there an increase in WASH practices ; 5) was stored household drinking water safe for consumption ? In August to September 2012, an evaluation was conducted of the longer-term effectiveness of a 2009 WASH program in northern Afghanistan. A total of 59 households from four villages took part in the follow-up survey that collected information regarding drinking water, sanitation, health behaviors, and storage or treatment of drinking water. With permission of the participants, drinking water samples were collected and tested for any presence of E. coli, an indicator of fecal contamination. Additionally, samples were taken and analyzed from 15 drinking water sources, 13 of which were public boreholes. Lastly, a Garmin GPS device was used to collect latitude and longitude location of important points during the field research.

Mots clés : Public health – Afghanistan — Water — Purification – Non-governmental organizations – Evaluation — Sanitation, Household — Wells — Geographic information systems —Health aspects

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